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Toxins 2014, 6(11), 3129-3143; doi:10.3390/toxins6113129

Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (ISPA-CNR), Via G. Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 25 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Abstract

Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; FT-NIR; rapid method; wheat; LDA; PLS deoxynivalenol; FT-NIR; rapid method; wheat; LDA; PLS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Girolamo, A.; Cervellieri, S.; Visconti, A.; Pascale, M. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy. Toxins 2014, 6, 3129-3143.

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