Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2656-2670; doi:10.3390/toxins5122656
Article

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA

1 Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA 2 Department of Food Engineering, College of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46060, Turkey 3 USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Harris Hall, Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were measured using gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in wheat samples collected during 2011 and 2012 in the USA. Results indicate that the growing region had a significant effect on the DON and D3G (p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between both methods (GC and LC-MS) used for determination of DON content. DON showed a significant and positive correlation with D3G during 2011. Overall, DON production had an effect on D3G content and kernel damage, and was dependent on environmental conditions during Fusarium infection.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; wheat; USA

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MDPI and ACS Style

Simsek, S.; Ovando-Martínez, M.; Ozsisli, B.; Whitney, K.; Ohm, J.-B. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA. Toxins 2013, 5, 2656-2670.

AMA Style

Simsek S, Ovando-Martínez M, Ozsisli B, Whitney K, Ohm J-B. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2656-2670.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Ozsisli, Bahri; Whitney, Kristin; Ohm, Jae-Bom. 2013. "Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2656-2670.

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