Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes
Next Article in Special Issue
Deoxynivalenol: A Major Player in the Multifaceted Response of Fusarium to Its Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2656-2670; doi:10.3390/toxins5122656
Article

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA

1,* , 1
,
2
,
1
 and
3
1 Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA 2 Department of Food Engineering, College of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46060, Turkey 3 USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Harris Hall, Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1479 KB, uploaded 18 December 2013]   |  

Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were measured using gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in wheat samples collected during 2011 and 2012 in the USA. Results indicate that the growing region had a significant effect on the DON and D3G (p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between both methods (GC and LC-MS) used for determination of DON content. DON showed a significant and positive correlation with D3G during 2011. Overall, DON production had an effect on D3G content and kernel damage, and was dependent on environmental conditions during Fusarium infection.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; wheat; USA deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; wheat; USA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Simsek, S.; Ovando-Martínez, M.; Ozsisli, B.; Whitney, K.; Ohm, J.-B. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA. Toxins 2013, 5, 2656-2670.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert