Toxins 2014, 6(2), 679-692; doi:10.3390/toxins6020679
Article

Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses

1,†email, 2,†email, 3email, 4email, 5email, 6email, 3email, 3email and 3,* email
Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can cause cell death in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but can also reduce the level of cell death caused by heat shock in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell cultures. We show that 10 μg mL−1 DON does not cause cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures, and its ability to retard heat-induced cell death is light dependent. Under dark conditions, it actually promoted heat-induced cell death. Wheat cultivars differ in their ability to resist this toxin, and we investigated if the ability of wheat to mount defense responses was light dependent. We found no evidence that light affected the transcription of defense genes in DON-treated roots of seedlings of two wheat cultivars, namely cultivar CM82036 that is resistant to DON-induced bleaching of spikelet tissue and cultivar Remus that is not. However, DON treatment of roots led to genotype-dependent and light-enhanced defense transcript accumulation in coleoptiles. Wheat transcripts encoding a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene (previously associated with Fusarium resistance), non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes-1 (NPR1) and a class III plant peroxidase (POX) were DON-upregulated in coleoptiles of wheat cultivar CM82036 but not of cultivar Remus, and DON-upregulation of these transcripts in cultivar CM82036 was light enhanced. Light and genotype-dependent differences in the DON/DON derivative content of coleoptiles were also observed. These results, coupled with previous findings regarding the effect of DON on plants, show that light either directly or indirectly influences the plant defense responses to DON.
Keywords: Arabidopsis; β-1,3-glucanase; cell death; Fusarium; light; non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes-1 (NPR1); peroxidase; phenylalanine ammonia lyase; wheat
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [485 KB, uploaded 20 February 2014 14:11 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ansari, K.I.; Doyle, S.M.; Kacprzyk, J.; Khan, M.R.; Walter, S.; Brennan, J.M.; Arunachalam, C.S.; McCabe, P.F.; Doohan, F.M. Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses. Toxins 2014, 6, 679-692.

AMA Style

Ansari KI, Doyle SM, Kacprzyk J, Khan MR, Walter S, Brennan JM, Arunachalam CS, McCabe PF, Doohan FM. Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):679-692.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ansari, Khairul I.; Doyle, Siamsa M.; Kacprzyk, Joanna; Khan, Mojibur R.; Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M.; Arunachalam, Chanemouga S.; McCabe, Paul F.; Doohan, Fiona M. 2014. "Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses." Toxins 6, no. 2: 679-692.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert