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Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum
Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
Department of Food Engineering, College of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46060, Turkey
University of Minnesota, Agronomy/Plant Genetics, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory, Harris Hall, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.
Keywords: fusarium; wheat; deoxinyvalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ovando-Martínez, M.; Ozsisli, B.; Anderson, J.; Whitney, K.; Ohm, J.-B.; Simsek, S. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum. Toxins 2013, 5, 2522-2532.
Ovando-Martínez M, Ozsisli B, Anderson J, Whitney K, Ohm J-B, Simsek S. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2522-2532.
Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Ozsisli, Bahri; Anderson, James; Whitney, Kristin; Ohm, Jae-Bom; Simsek, Senay. 2013. "Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2522-2532.