Next Article in Journal
Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish
Next Article in Special Issue
Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Previous Article in Journal
Geographical Patterns in Cyanobacteria Distribution: Climate Influence at Regional Scale
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 523-538; doi:10.3390/toxins6020523

Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination

* ,
Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council (CNR), Bari 70126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [355 KB, uploaded 28 January 2014]   |   Browse Figure


Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1, ZEA + α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) + β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and OTA, respectively. An UPLC-MS/MS multi-biomarker method was used to detect and measure incidence and levels of these biomarkers in urine samples of 52 volunteers resident in Apulia region in Southern Italy. The presence of ZEA + ZOLs, OTA, DON, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 96%, 56% and 6%, of samples, respectively. All samples contained biomarkers of two or more mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of biomarkers ranged from 0.055 ng/mL (FB1) to 11.89 ng/mL (DON). Urinary biomarker concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to multiple mycotoxin. For OTA and DON, 94% and 40% of volunteers, respectively exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins. The estimated human exposure to FB1 and ZEA was largely below the TDI for these mycotoxins for all volunteers.
Keywords: mycotoxins; biomarker; urine; UPLC-MS/MS; immunoaffinity cleanup; exposure mycotoxins; biomarker; urine; UPLC-MS/MS; immunoaffinity cleanup; exposure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Solfrizzo, M.; Gambacorta, L.; Visconti, A. Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination. Toxins 2014, 6, 523-538.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert