Abstract: This study comprises analyses of contents of mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the level of oxidative stress in ears of a susceptible wheat cultivar Hanseat and cv. Arina, resistant to a pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Starting from 48 h after inoculation, a marked increase was observed in the contents of these mycotoxins in ears of wheat; however, the greatest accumulation was recorded in the late period after inoculation, i.e., during development of disease. Up to 120 h after inoculation, in ears of both wheat cultivars, the level of deoxynivalenol was higher than that of zearalenone. The susceptible cultivar was characterized by a much greater accumulation of deoxynivalenol than the resistant cultivar. At the same time, in this cultivar, in the time from 0 to 72 h after inoculation, a marked post-infection increase was observed in the generation of the superoxide radical (O2•−). Additionally, its level, at all the time points after inoculation, was higher than in the control. In wheat cv. Arina, a markedly higher level of O2•− generation in relation to the control was found up to two hours after inoculation and, next, at a later time after inoculation. In turn, the level of semiquinone radicals detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) increased at later culture times, both in cv. Hanseat and Arina; however, in infested ears of wheat, it was generally lower than in the control. Analysis of disease symptoms revealed the presence of more extensive lesions in ears of a susceptible wheat cv. Hanseat than resistant cv. Arina. Additionally, ergosterol level as a fungal growth indicator was higher in ears of susceptible wheat than in the resistant cultivar.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; semiquinone radicals; Fusarium graminearum; oxidative stress; winter wheat; zearalenone; ergosterol
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Waśkiewicz, A.; Morkunas, I.; Bednarski, W.; Mai, V.C.; Formela, M.; Beszterda, M.; Wiśniewska, H.; Goliński, P. Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Toxins 2014, 6, 575-591.
Waśkiewicz A, Morkunas I, Bednarski W, Mai VC, Formela M, Beszterda M, Wiśniewska H, Goliński P. Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):575-591.
Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mai, Van C.; Formela, Magda; Beszterda, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Goliński, Piotr. 2014. "Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum." Toxins 6, no. 2: 575-591.