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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 575-591; doi:10.3390/toxins6020575
Article

Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

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Received: 5 November 2013; in revised form: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Abstract: This study comprises analyses of contents of mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the level of oxidative stress in ears of a susceptible wheat cultivar Hanseat and cv. Arina, resistant to a pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Starting from 48 h after inoculation, a marked increase was observed in the contents of these mycotoxins in ears of wheat; however, the greatest accumulation was recorded in the late period after inoculation, i.e., during development of disease. Up to 120 h after inoculation, in ears of both wheat cultivars, the level of deoxynivalenol was higher than that of zearalenone. The susceptible cultivar was characterized by a much greater accumulation of deoxynivalenol than the resistant cultivar. At the same time, in this cultivar, in the time from 0 to 72 h after inoculation, a marked post-infection increase was observed in the generation of the superoxide radical (O2•−). Additionally, its level, at all the time points after inoculation, was higher than in the control. In wheat cv. Arina, a markedly higher level of O2•− generation in relation to the control was found up to two hours after inoculation and, next, at a later time after inoculation. In turn, the level of semiquinone radicals detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) increased at later culture times, both in cv. Hanseat and Arina; however, in infested ears of wheat, it was generally lower than in the control. Analysis of disease symptoms revealed the presence of more extensive lesions in ears of a susceptible wheat cv. Hanseat than resistant cv. Arina. Additionally, ergosterol level as a fungal growth indicator was higher in ears of susceptible wheat than in the resistant cultivar.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; semiquinone radicals; Fusarium graminearum; oxidative stress; winter wheat; zearalenone; ergosterol deoxynivalenol; semiquinone radicals; Fusarium graminearum; oxidative stress; winter wheat; zearalenone; ergosterol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Waśkiewicz, A.; Morkunas, I.; Bednarski, W.; Mai, V.C.; Formela, M.; Beszterda, M.; Wiśniewska, H.; Goliński, P. Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Toxins 2014, 6, 575-591.

AMA Style

Waśkiewicz A, Morkunas I, Bednarski W, Mai VC, Formela M, Beszterda M, Wiśniewska H, Goliński P. Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):575-591.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mai, Van C.; Formela, Magda; Beszterda, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Goliński, Piotr. 2014. "Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum." Toxins 6, no. 2: 575-591.


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