Toxins 2014, 6(1), 394-401; doi:10.3390/toxins6010394
Article

Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

Received: 30 October 2013; in revised form: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; bread making; wheat germ
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giménez, I.; Blesa, J.; Herrera, M.; Ariño, A. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread. Toxins 2014, 6, 394-401.

AMA Style

Giménez I, Blesa J, Herrera M, Ariño A. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread. Toxins. 2014; 6(1):394-401.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín. 2014. "Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread." Toxins 6, no. 1: 394-401.

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