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Special Issue "Marine Lipids"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gilles Barnathan

College of Pharmacy, University of Nantes, Nantes, France
E-Mail
Phone: (33)2 53 48 41 98
Interests: Marine lipids with biological activity and with interest in human health and nutrition; bioactive glycolipids; fatty acid and sterol compositions; marine sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids; analytical methods in structure dtermination and lipidomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine lipids are undoubtedly representatives of the marine chemical biodiversity. Phospholipids, glycolipids and oxylipins have considerable importance and will be taken into account, especially glycolipids that excite increasing interest regarding their promising antitumor and immunomodulating activities. Fatty acids (FA) and FA-containing lipids in particular are ubiquitous in the marine organisms, especially invertebrates, and they have proved to be a major source of unique structures. Thus, marine invertebrates, such as mollusks or most primitive animals (sponges, gorgonians), are rich in lipid compounds of biological interest. In addition to the very important polyunsaturated FA, such as those from the n-3 series, a great number of various FA occur in marine organisms ranging from bacteria and first planktonic marine producers to fish, including branched, non-methylene-interrupted, conjugated, hydroxylated, methoxylated and halogenated FA. Nevertheless, these unique lipids originate from unusual biosynthetic pathways and their biological roles still remain unknown.

This Special Issue devoted to “Marine Lipids” will highlight recent interesting studies regarding, among other topics, bioassay guided fractionation employed to isolate compounds displaying promising bioactivities, use of new lipid extraction techniques such as enzymatic tissue disruption, and using the lipidomic approach in the characterization and comparison of lipid classes present in biological samples. The aim of this issue is to present recent advances and to introduce some important future research directions in the field of research. Thus, we hope that gathering manuscripts here will inform on a number of aspects of recent developments within this field.

Prof. Dr. Gilles Barnathan
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • lipids
  • lipidomics
  • glycolipids
  • phospholipids
  • oxylipins
  • fatty acids
  • sterols
  • marine organisms
  • algae
  • marine chemical ecology
  • biosynthetic pathways
  • biomarkers
  • biological interest
  • biological activity

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7275-7284; doi:10.3390/md13127064
Received: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 5 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic
[...] Read more.
Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1), biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 7020-7039; doi:10.3390/md13117020
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 7 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition
[...] Read more.
Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Ocean Warming and CO2-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6019-6037; doi:10.3390/md13106019
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The
[...] Read more.
Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO2-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO2 on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO2 acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5706-5721; doi:10.3390/md13095706
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect
[...] Read more.
Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5606-5628; doi:10.3390/md13095606
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were
[...] Read more.
Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5564-5578; doi:10.3390/md13095564
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in
[...] Read more.
The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = −0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5402-5424; doi:10.3390/md13085402
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%–42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%–7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Cell Disruption Methods for Improving Lipid Extraction from Thraustochytrid Strains
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5111-5127; doi:10.3390/md13085111
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid
[...] Read more.
Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle The Marine-Derived Fungus Clonostachys rosea, Source of a Rare Conjugated 4-Me-6E,8E-hexadecadienoic Acid Reducing Viability of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Gene Expression of Lipogenic Enzymes
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 4934-4948; doi:10.3390/md13084934
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A marine-derived strain of Clonostachys rosea isolated from sediments of the river Loire estuary (France) was investigated for its high lipid production. The fungal strain was grown on six different culture media to explore lipid production changes. An original branched conjugated fatty acid,
[...] Read more.
A marine-derived strain of Clonostachys rosea isolated from sediments of the river Loire estuary (France) was investigated for its high lipid production. The fungal strain was grown on six different culture media to explore lipid production changes. An original branched conjugated fatty acid, mainly present in triglycerides and mostly produced when grown on DCA (23% of total fatty acid composition). It was identified as 4-Me-6E,8E-hexadecadienoic on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. This fatty acid reduced viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose dependent manner (up to 63%) at physiological free fatty acid human plasma concentration (100 μM). Reduction of gene expression of two lipogenic enzymes, the acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and the fatty acid synthase (FAS) was evaluated to explore the mechanisms of action of 4-Me-6E,8E-16:2 acid. At 50 μM, 50% and 35% of mRNA gene expression inhibition were observed for ACC and FAS, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Krill with Antioxidative and Immunomodulating Properties Reduced Plasma Triacylglycerol and Hepatic Lipogenesis in Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4375-4397; doi:10.3390/md13074375
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from
[...] Read more.
Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from krill that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism, inflammation, and redox status. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (2% soy oil, 8% lard, 20% casein), or diets where corresponding amounts of casein and lard were replaced with PPC at 3%, 6%, or 11% (wt %), for four weeks. Dietary supplementation with PPC resulted in significantly lower levels of plasma triacylglycerols in the 11% PPC-fed group, probably due to reduced hepatic lipogenesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were also reduced at the highest dose of PPC. In addition, the plasma and liver content of n-3 PUFAs increased while n-6 PUFAs decreased. This was associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma and increased liver gene expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2). Finally, a reduced plasma level of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-2 (IL-2) was detected in the PPC-fed animals. The present data show that PPC has lipid-lowering effects in rats, and may modulate risk factors related to cardiovascular disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4357-4374; doi:10.3390/md13074357
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a
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This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%–29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4255-4269; doi:10.3390/md13074255
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic
[...] Read more.
The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2215-2232; doi:10.3390/md13042215
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be
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The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Influence Liver Triacylglycerol and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1864-1881; doi:10.3390/md13041864
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two
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This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6) and Fructose (Fr, n = 32), the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased) and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased). The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 1026-1036; doi:10.3390/md13021026
Received: 24 November 2014 / Revised: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3)
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Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(12), 6254-6268; doi:10.3390/md12126254
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine
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The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Antimalarial Activity of Axidjiferosides, New β-Galactosylceramides from the African Sponge Axinyssa djiferi
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(4), 1304-1315; doi:10.3390/md11041304
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The marine sponge, Axinyssa djiferi, collected on mangrove tree roots in Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids. A mixture containing new glycosphingolipids, named axidjiferoside-A, -B and -C, accounted for 0.07% of sponge biomass (dry weight) and for 2.16% of total lipids. It showed
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The marine sponge, Axinyssa djiferi, collected on mangrove tree roots in Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids. A mixture containing new glycosphingolipids, named axidjiferoside-A, -B and -C, accounted for 0.07% of sponge biomass (dry weight) and for 2.16% of total lipids. It showed a significant antimalarial activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.53 ± 0.2 μM against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. They were identified as homologous β-galactopyranosylceramides composed of 2-amino-(6E)-octadec-6-en-1,3,4-triol, and the major one, axidjiferoside-A (around 60%), contained 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid. Cytotoxicity was studied in vitro on human cancer cell lines (multiple myeloma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma and two lung cancer NSCLC-N6 and A549). Results of this investigation showed that axidjiferosides are of interest, because they proved a good antiplasmodial activity, with only a low cytotoxicity against various human cell lines and no significant antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity. Thus, it seems that galactosylceramides with a β anomeric configuration may be suitable in searching for new antimalarial drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Palyosulfonoceramides A and B: Unique Sulfonylated Ceramides from the Brazilian Zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalyhtoa variabilis
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2846-2860; doi:10.3390/md10122846
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis are among the most abundant marine species along the Brazilian coast. We now report the isolation and structure elucidation of two unprecedented sulfonylated ceramides, palyosulfonoceramide A (1) and palyosulfonoceramide B (2) from
[...] Read more.
The zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis are among the most abundant marine species along the Brazilian coast. We now report the isolation and structure elucidation of two unprecedented sulfonylated ceramides, palyosulfonoceramide A (1) and palyosulfonoceramide B (2) from specimens collected off Brazil’s northeastern coast. The structures of 1 and 2 were established using a combination of NMR analyses, including: evaluation of 1H, 13C, 1H–1H COSY, 1H–13C HSQC, 1H–13C HMBC, and 1H–15N HMBC NMR spectra, high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemical degradation. In addition, we also isolated the corresponding known ceramides, N-((2S,3R,4E,8E)-1, 3-dihydroxyoctadeca-4,8-dien-2-yl)-hexadecanamide (3) and N-((2S,3R,4E)-1,3-dihydroxy octadeca-4-en-2-yl)-hexadecanamide (4), which provided further support for the assignments of 1 and 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Rare 21:4 n-7 Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius, Isolated Using Bioassay Guided Fractionation
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2676-2690; doi:10.3390/md10122676
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated
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The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated and identified using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was shown that the opisthobranch contained unusual PUFAs such as several ω3 fatty acids and the ω7 heneicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid (21:4 n-7) not isolated before. The organism was shown to be a very rich source of PUFAs and the activity of the isolated compounds against a range of human cancer cell lines (melanoma, colon carcinoma and breast carcinoma) is further reported. The ω7 PUFA was significantly more cytotoxic in comparison with reference ω6 arachidonic and ω3 eicosapentaenoic acid. A noteworthy non-selective cytotoxicity against normal lung fibroblasts was also established. The paper contains isolation protocols in addition to cytotoxicity data of the isolated compounds. The potential of marine mollusks as a source for rare PUFAs is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Trial: Marine Lipid Suppositories as Laxatives
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2047-2054; doi:10.3390/md10092047
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3
[...] Read more.
Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3 fish oil. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety of marine lipid suppositories and ointment in healthy volunteers and to explore the laxative effect of the suppositories. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized either to a study group administrating 30% FFA suppositories and applying 30% FFA ointment to the perianal region twice per day for two weeks, or to a control group using placebo suppositories and ointment in a double blinded manner. Results: No serious toxic effects or irritation were observed. In the study group 93% felt the urge to defecate after administration of the suppositories as compared to 37% in the control group (P = 0.001). Subsequently 90% in the study group defecated, compared to 33% in the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The marine lipid suppositories and ointment were well tolerated with no significant toxic side effects observed during the study period. The suppositories have a distinct laxative effect and we aim to explore this effect in further clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1920-1935; doi:10.3390/md10091920
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources
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As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity on Human Cancer Cells of Ophidiacerebrosides Isolated from the African Starfish Narcissia canariensis
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(12), 2988-2998; doi:10.3390/md8122988
Received: 5 November 2010 / Revised: 6 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The starfish Narcissia canariensis harvested from the coasts off Dakar, Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids (GL). This report deals with the isolation, characterization and biological activity of a fraction F13-3 separated from the GL mixture and selected according to its ability to inhibit
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The starfish Narcissia canariensis harvested from the coasts off Dakar, Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids (GL). This report deals with the isolation, characterization and biological activity of a fraction F13-3 separated from the GL mixture and selected according to its ability to inhibit KB cell proliferation after 72 hours of treatment. Firstly, a GL mixture F13 was obtained that accounted for 1.36% of starfish biomass (dry weight) and 0.36% of total lipids. The fraction F13-3 obtained from F13 contained three homologous GL identified as peracetylated derivatives on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. These contained a β-glucopyranoside as sugar head, a 9-methyl-branched 4,8,10-triunsaturated long-chain aminoalcohol as sphingoid base and amide-linked 2-hydroxy fatty acid chains. The majority (63%) had an amide-linked 2‑hydroxydocosanoic acid chain and was identified as the ophidiacerebroside-C, firstly isolated from the starfish Ophidiaster ophidiamus. The minor components of F13-3 differed by one more or one less methylene group, and corresponded to ophidiacerebroside-B and -D. We found that F13-3 displayed an interesting cytotoxic activity over 24 hours on various adherent human cancerous cell lines (multiple myeloma, colorectal adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme) with an IC50 of around 20 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(12), 2961-2975; doi:10.3390/md8122961
Received: 21 October 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 / Published: 17 December 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts.
[...] Read more.
The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Marine Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(10), 2597-2604; doi:10.3390/md8102597
Received: 2 September 2010 / Revised: 27 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on biofilm formation by the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis was investigated. It was found that stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) have
[...] Read more.
The effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on biofilm formation by the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis was investigated. It was found that stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) have an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial metabolism of both C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and that the production of biofilm biomass by C. dubliniensis was more susceptible to these fatty acids than C. albicans. Ultrastructural differences, which may be due to increased oxidative stress, were observed between treated and untreated cells of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with formation of rough cell walls by both species and fibrillar structures in C. dubliniensis. These results indicate that marine polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of biofilms formed by these pathogenic yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4231-4254; doi:10.3390/md13074231
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as
[...] Read more.
Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessReview Lipids of Prokaryotic Origin at the Base of Marine Food Webs
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2698-2714; doi:10.3390/md10122698
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 29 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In particular niches of the marine environment, such as abyssal trenches, icy waters and hot vents, the base of the food web is composed of bacteria and archaea that have developed strategies to survive and thrive under the most extreme conditions. Some of
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In particular niches of the marine environment, such as abyssal trenches, icy waters and hot vents, the base of the food web is composed of bacteria and archaea that have developed strategies to survive and thrive under the most extreme conditions. Some of these organisms are considered “extremophiles” and modulate the fatty acid composition of their phospholipids to maintain the adequate fluidity of the cellular membrane under cold/hot temperatures, elevated pressure, high/low salinity and pH. Bacterial cells are even able to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, contrarily to what was considered until the 1990s, helping the regulation of the membrane fluidity triggered by temperature and pressure and providing protection from oxidative stress. In marine ecosystems, bacteria may either act as a sink of carbon, contribute to nutrient recycling to photo-autotrophs or bacterial organic matter may be transferred to other trophic links in aquatic food webs. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review on lipid production in bacteria and archaea and to discuss how their lipids, of both heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic origin, contribute to marine food webs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessReview Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2535-2559; doi:10.3390/md10112535
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many
[...] Read more.
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many health authorities to prevent (up to 0.5 g/day) or treat chronic disease (1.0 g/day for coronary heart disease; 1.2–4 g/day for elevated triglyceride levels). Recommendations for dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFAs are often provided for α-linolenic acid, and for the combination of EPA and DHA. However, many studies have also reported differential effects of EPA, DHA and their metabolites in the clinic and at the laboratory bench. The aim of this article is to review studies that have identified divergent responses to EPA and DHA, and to explore reasons for these differences. In particular, we review potential contributing factors such as differential membrane incorporation, modulation of gene expression, activation of signaling pathways and metabolite formation. We suggest that there may be future opportunity to refine recommendations for intake of individual LC n-3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessReview Demospongic Acids Revisited
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(10), 2569-2577; doi:10.3390/md8102569
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 27 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large
[...] Read more.
The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessReview Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2175-2184; doi:10.3390/md8072175
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (89 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis
[...] Read more.
Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells). 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0) or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)

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