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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2175-2184; doi:10.3390/md8072175
Review

Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

1
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2
,
1
,
1
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Moléculaire, Université de Rennes 1, France 2 Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, and Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Abstract

Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells). 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0) or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.
Keywords: alkylglycerols; shark liver oil; ether lipids; immunostimulation; anti-tumor activities alkylglycerols; shark liver oil; ether lipids; immunostimulation; anti-tumor activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Deniau, A.-L.; Mosset, P.; Pédrono, F.; Mitre, R.; Bot, D.L.; Legrand, A.B. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2175-2184.

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