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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2175-2184; doi:10.3390/md8072175
Review

Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

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Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
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Abstract

Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells). 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0) or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.
Keywords: alkylglycerols; shark liver oil; ether lipids; immunostimulation; anti-tumor activities alkylglycerols; shark liver oil; ether lipids; immunostimulation; anti-tumor activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Deniau, A.-L.; Mosset, P.; Pédrono, F.; Mitre, R.; Bot, D.L.; Legrand, A.B. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2175-2184.

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