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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2215-2232; doi:10.3390/md13042215

Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators

1
School of Biological Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
2
Institute of Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247 CNRS, ENSCM, University of Montpellier, F-34093 Montpellier cedex 05, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gilles Barnathan
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1354 KB, uploaded 14 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: adrenic acid; dihomo-isofurans; dihomo-isoprostanes; medaka adrenic acid; dihomo-isofurans; dihomo-isoprostanes; medaka
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chung, M.L.S.; Galano, J.-M.; Oger, C.; Durand, T.; Lee, J.C.-Y. Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2215-2232.

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