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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5706-5721; doi:10.3390/md13095706

A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

1
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
2
Olympic Seafood AS, N-6080 Fosnavaag, Norway
3
Department of Cardiology, Stavanger University Hospital, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
4
Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gilles Barnathan
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [930 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: phospholipid-protein complex; Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Euphausia superba; one-carbon metabolism; homocysteine; trimethylamine-N-oxide; carnitine phospholipid-protein complex; Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Euphausia superba; one-carbon metabolism; homocysteine; trimethylamine-N-oxide; carnitine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bjørndal, B.; Ramsvik, M.S.; Lindquist, C.; Nordrehaug, J.E.; Bruheim, I.; Svardal, A.; Nygård, O.; Berge, R.K. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5706-5721.

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