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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5402-5424; doi:10.3390/md13085402

The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages

Biosciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland
School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland
Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute for Environmental, Marine and Energy Research, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
School of Agriculture and Food Science, Institute of Food & Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland
College of Science, Engineering and Food Science, University College Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gilles Barnathan
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [757 KB, uploaded 20 August 2015]   |  


Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%–42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%–7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; macroalgae; THP-1; inflammation; lipids; n-3 PUFA; polyunsaturated fatty acids; macrophages; chlorophyll a; bioactive pigments microalgae; macroalgae; THP-1; inflammation; lipids; n-3 PUFA; polyunsaturated fatty acids; macrophages; chlorophyll a; bioactive pigments

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Robertson, R.C.; Guihéneuf, F.; Bahar, B.; Schmid, M.; Stengel, D.B.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Ross, R.P.; Stanton, C. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5402-5424.

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