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Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids
Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2012; in revised form: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Abstract: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many health authorities to prevent (up to 0.5 g/day) or treat chronic disease (1.0 g/day for coronary heart disease; 1.2–4 g/day for elevated triglyceride levels). Recommendations for dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFAs are often provided for α-linolenic acid, and for the combination of EPA and DHA. However, many studies have also reported differential effects of EPA, DHA and their metabolites in the clinic and at the laboratory bench. The aim of this article is to review studies that have identified divergent responses to EPA and DHA, and to explore reasons for these differences. In particular, we review potential contributing factors such as differential membrane incorporation, modulation of gene expression, activation of signaling pathways and metabolite formation. We suggest that there may be future opportunity to refine recommendations for intake of individual LC n-3 PUFAs.
Keywords: LC n-3 PUFAs; omega-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; resolvin D1; differential response; omega-3 fatty acid metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style
Russell, F.D.; Bürgin-Maunder, C.S. Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2535-2559.
Russell FD, Bürgin-Maunder CS. Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(11):2535-2559.
Russell, Fraser D.; Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S. 2012. "Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 11: 2535-2559.