Topical Collection "Integrated Pest Management"

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A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Michael J. Stout

Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
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Phone: 2258922972
Interests: plant-insect interactions; pest management in rice; plant resistance to insects and diseases
Collection Editor
Dr. Jeff Davis

Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, 70803, USA
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Collection Editor
Dr. Rodrigo Diaz

Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Website | E-Mail
Collection Editor
Dr. Julien M. Beuzelin

Dean Lee Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Alexandria, LA 71302, USA
Website | E-Mail

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an approach to managing insect, disease, and weed pests in agricultural systems that was developed over 50 years ago in response to environmental, economic, and other problems associated with the over-reliance on pesticides to control pests. IPM is now the dominant paradigm guiding the development of management programs for pests. However, many management programs still rely too heavily on pesticides, and alternatives to pesticides have failed to fulfill their promise in many cases. Moreover, despite the ostensible centrality of integration in IPM, management tactics for a pest are often developed or studied in isolation from other tactics, and in isolation from management programs for other pests. This collection will comprise mini-reviews and original article on all aspects of IPM in crops and other systems. Manuscripts exploring the appropriate use of insecticides in IPM, the integration of multiple tactics against single pests, and the integration of management programs for multiple pests are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Michael J. Stout
Dr. Jeff Davis
Dr. Rodrigo Diaz
Dr. Julien M. Beuzelin
Collection Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Published Papers (25 papers)

2016

Jump to: 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program
Insects 2016, 7(4), 68; doi:10.3390/insects7040068
Received: 12 March 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling
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Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild), AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA), and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg) and MD (10 mg) programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W) ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using codlemone lures. AA-PE lures allow detection of wild female moths that may measure damage potential more accurately than detection of wild males. The short-range activity of AA-PE lures compared with that of codlemone-based lures appears to improve the ability to measure S:W ratios and the impact of SIT on population control near the site where wild moths are trapped. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beyond Focal Pests: Impact of a Neonicotinoid Seed Treatment and Resistant Soybean Lines on a Non-Target Arthropod
Insects 2016, 7(4), 64; doi:10.3390/insects7040064
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid
[...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) control on reproduction of a non-target herbivore (twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch) in short-term greenhouse experiments. We also examined interactions between spider mites and a specialist phytoseiid mite [Ambylseius fallacis (Garman)] and assessed the effects of a co-occurring opportunistic omnivore [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] by including thrips density as a covariate. There were no interactive or main effects of the presence of Rag genes on the densities of any of the arthropods. Overall, effects of the seed treatment on spider mite densities varied, with no difference when mites were confined in clip cages, and higher populations on seed-treated plants when on whole plants. Predatory mites had a consistent negative impact on spider mites, and densities of A. fallacis immatures were similar between seed treated and non-seed treated plants. However, the relationship between spider mite and thrips densities was different between these two plant types, but only in the clip cage experiment lacking predatory mites. This research highlights the importance of considering how IPM tactics might affect non-target organisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Dinotefuran and Flupyradifurone in South Florida
Insects 2016, 7(4), 57; doi:10.3390/insects7040057
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven
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Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC50s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiducial limits, indicating some degree of susceptibility. LC50s more than a 100-fold the laboratory colony were measured in at least one population for each material tested, indicating tolerance. LC50s (ppm) from field populations ranged from 0.901–24.952 for imidacloprid, 0.965–24.430 for thiamethoxam, 0.043–3.350 for dinotefuran and 0.011–1.471 for flupyradifurone. Based on overlapping fiducial limits, there were no significant differences in relative mean potency estimates for flupyradifurone and dinotefuran in relation to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis Cramer) Neonate Feeding Preferences and the Implications for a Push-Pull Management System
Insects 2016, 7(3), 32; doi:10.3390/insects7030032
Received: 19 March 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
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Abstract
Push-pull cropping approaches for pest management target the oviposition behavior of adult females. However, insect larvae may move from the natal host and undermine the effectiveness of this approach. We investigated the longevity and feeding preference of pickleworm neonates (Diaphania nitidalis Cramer
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Push-pull cropping approaches for pest management target the oviposition behavior of adult females. However, insect larvae may move from the natal host and undermine the effectiveness of this approach. We investigated the longevity and feeding preference of pickleworm neonates (Diaphania nitidalis Cramer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)) in relation to a potential push-pull cropping approach incorporating squash as a trap crop (pull) and watermelon as a deterrent intercrop (push) to protect a main crop of cantaloupe. Neonates could survive between 24 to 64 h without food, indicating they have some initial energy reserves to keep alive while in search of a suitable feeding site. To assess neonate feeding preferences, naive neonates were given the choice of five foods; leaves of squash, cantaloupe, watermelon, bean, and a pinto bean-based artificial diet. To assess if previous feeding experience influences neonate food source preference, neonates were allowed to feed on one of the five foods for 24 h and then given the same choice of the five food sources. The neonates, with or without previous feeding experience, did not appear to have a significant preference for any of the cucurbits: squash, cantaloupe, or watermelon, but they did prefer a cucurbit to the bean leaf or artificial diet. Feeding experience on one of these non-host foods made neonates more accepting of these food sources in the choice arena even when host plant food sources became available. It appears that neonate feeding preferences of pickleworm would neither hinder nor enhance the potential success of the proposed cucurbits to be used in a potential push-pull cropping approach for pickleworm management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean
Insects 2016, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/insects7020027
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
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Abstract
Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology,
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Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification. Full article

2015

Jump to: 2016, 2014

Open AccessArticle Antagonistic Interactions between the African Weaver Ant Oecophylla longinoda and the Parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Potentially Limits Suppression of the Invasive Mealybug Rastrococcus iceryoides
Insects 2016, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/insects7010001
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
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Abstract
The ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille forms a trophobiotic relationship with the invasive mealybug Rastrococus iceryoides Green and promotes the latter’s infestations to unacceptable levels in the presence of their natural enemies. In this regard, the antagonistic interactions between the ant and the parasitoid
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The ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille forms a trophobiotic relationship with the invasive mealybug Rastrococus iceryoides Green and promotes the latter’s infestations to unacceptable levels in the presence of their natural enemies. In this regard, the antagonistic interactions between the ant and the parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Girault were assessed under laboratory conditions. The percentage of parasitism of R. iceryoides by A. pseudococci was significantly higher on “ant-excluded” treatments (86.6% ± 1.27%) compared to “ant-tended” treatments (51.4% ± 4.13%). The low female-biased sex-ratio observed in the “ant-tended” treatment can be attributed to ants’ interference during the oviposition phase, which disrupted parasitoids’ ability to fertilize eggs. The mean foraging time, host handling time and number of successful oviposition in “ant-excluded” treatment were significantly higher compared to “ant-tended” treatments. When ant workers were allowed access to sterilized sand grains, mummified and unmummified R. iceryoides, they selectively removed the mummified mealybugs, indicating that they recognized the mummies as potential foods (1.2 ± 0.46 to 7.8 ± 1.17 mummies at 10 min intervals for 2 h). Percentage emergence from mummified R. iceryoides removed by the ants was significantly lower compared to emergence from mummies not exposed to ants. Although, host seeking parasitoids frequently evaded attacks, some were killed by the foraging ant workers (2.0 ± 0.38 to 6.0 ± 0.88 at 10 min intervals for 2 h). These results suggest for the first time that the presence of O. longinoda has a detrimental effect on the abundance, reproductive success and possibly oviposition strategy of female parasitoids, which might be a delimiting factor in field conditions if both natural enemies are to be recommended for use within the same agro-ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites
Insects 2015, 6(4), 847-857; doi:10.3390/insects6040847
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
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Abstract
Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on
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Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
Insects 2015, 6(3), 608-625; doi:10.3390/insects6030608
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
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Abstract
Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in
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Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. Full article
Open AccessReview Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?
Insects 2015, 6(3), 626-657; doi:10.3390/insects6030626
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
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Abstract
This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of
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This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. Full article
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Open AccessReview Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings
Insects 2015, 6(2), 595-607; doi:10.3390/insects6020595
Received: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
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Abstract
Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum),
[...] Read more.
Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. Full article
Open AccessCase Report The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia
Insects 2015, 6(2), 381-408; doi:10.3390/insects6020381
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
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Abstract
Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted
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Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place. Full article
Open AccessReview Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management
Insects 2015, 6(2), 352-367; doi:10.3390/insects6020352
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
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Abstract
The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest
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The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Insects 2015, 6(2), 319-324; doi:10.3390/insects6020319
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest,
[...] Read more.
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA) as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia
Insects 2015, 6(2), 333-351; doi:10.3390/insects6020333
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of
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Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. Full article
Open AccessReview An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region
Insects 2015, 6(2), 297-318; doi:10.3390/insects6020297
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and
[...] Read more.
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimizing Western Flower Thrips Management on French Beans by Combined Use of Beneficials and Imidacloprid
Insects 2015, 6(1), 279-296; doi:10.3390/insects6010279
Received: 25 December 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an important pest of vegetable crops worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. The predatory mites Neoseiulus (=Amblyseius) cucumeris (Oudemans), the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.), and an insecticide (imidacloprid) were tested
[...] Read more.
Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an important pest of vegetable crops worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. The predatory mites Neoseiulus (=Amblyseius) cucumeris (Oudemans), the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.), and an insecticide (imidacloprid) were tested for their efficacy to reduce WFT population density and damage to French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods under field conditions in two planting periods. Metarhizium anisopliae was applied as a foliar spray weekly at a rate of one litre spray volume per plot while imidacloprid was applied as a soil drench every two weeks at a rate of two litres of a mixture of water and imidacloprid per m2. Neoseiulus cucumeris was released every two weeks on plant foliage at a rate of three mites per plant. Single and combined treatment applications reduced WFT population density by at least three times and WFT damage to French bean pods by at least 1.7 times compared with untreated plots. The benefit-cost ratios in management of WFT were profitable with highest returns realized on imidacloprid treated plots. The results indicate that M. anisopliae, N. cucumeris, and imidacloprid have the potential for use in developing an integrated pest management program against WFT on French beans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius
Insects 2015, 6(1), 197-205; doi:10.3390/insects6010197
Received: 6 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture
[...] Read more.
Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam), Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid), and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid). No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present) and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM) bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron) at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa
Insects 2015, 6(1), 152-182; doi:10.3390/insects6010152
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 20 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global
[...] Read more.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. Full article

2014

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessReview Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management
Insects 2015, 6(1), 38-53; doi:10.3390/insects6010038
Received: 2 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females
[...] Read more.
True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations
Insects 2015, 6(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/insects6010001
Received: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid
[...] Read more.
Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007–2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt® II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA). Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt® II plastic laminated flakes. Full article
Open AccessReview Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops
Insects 2015, 6(1), 13-37; doi:10.3390/insects6010013
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy
[...] Read more.
Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil
Insects 2014, 5(4), 961-973; doi:10.3390/insects5040961
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
PDF Full-text (101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse
[...] Read more.
Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins
Insects 2014, 5(4), 885-908; doi:10.3390/insects5040885
Received: 27 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 2 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology,
[...] Read more.
Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps), all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL) domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Densities of Eggs and Nymphs and Percent Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Common Weeds in West Central Florida
Insects 2014, 5(4), 860-876; doi:10.3390/insects5040860
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 26 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The density of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the percent parasitism of the nymphs were measured from specimens collected on nine species of weeds, commonly found in west central Florida during the spring and summer of 2012 and
[...] Read more.
The density of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the percent parasitism of the nymphs were measured from specimens collected on nine species of weeds, commonly found in west central Florida during the spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. The weeds were direct seeded in 2012 and grown as transplants in 2013 for Randomized Complete Block design experiments. The leaf area of each whole-plant sample was measured and the B. tabaci density parameters were converted to numbers per 100 cm2. In June and July, 2013, whole-plant samples became too large to examine entirely, thus a representative portion of a plant totaling about 1000 cm2 was sampled. Egg and nymph densities and percent parasitism varied greatly among weed species, and were higher overall in 2012 than in 2013. The highest densities of eggs and nymphs were measured on Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia and Emilia fosbergii each year. Lower densities of immature B. tabaci were measured on most dates for Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens alba, Ipomoea lacunosa, Sesbania exaltata and Sida acuta. Nymph to egg ratios of 1:4 were observed on A. theophrasti and S. exaltata in 2012, while less than one nymph per ten eggs was observed overall on A. retroflexus, E. fosbergii and I. lacunosa. In 2012, parasitism rates of 32.3% were measured for B. alba, 23.4% for C. obtusifolia and 17.5% for S. acuta. Of the 206 parasitoids reared out over two seasons, 96.6% were Encarsia spp. and the remainder Eretmocerus spp. The role of weeds in managing B. tabaci is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil
Insects 2014, 5(4), 818-831; doi:10.3390/insects5040818
Received: 19 August 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil,
[...] Read more.
Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia
Author: Craig Thorburn
Affiliation: Centre for Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Victoria 3800, Australia; E-Mail: Craig.Thorburn@monash.edu
Abstract: Indonesia’s 11-year (1989-99) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of IPM principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, contributing to a resurgence of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to its establishment in the first place.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification: Impacts on Agroecosystems in Asia and Africa
Authors: Jules Pretty and Zareen Bharucha
Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, UK; E-Mail: jpretty@essex.ac.uk; zpbhar@essex.ac.uk
Abstract: This paper analyses recent evidence on how Integrated Pest Management has contributed to the successful sustainable intensification of crop production amongst smallholders across countries of Asia and Africa. Systems of IPM have contributed to reduced crop losses to pests and diseases while conserving ecosystem services and raising yields. We set out an overview of the challenge posed by crop pests in smallholder contexts, and the need for management technologies and practices that build natural capital at the same time as serving farmers' needs. We then set out the evidence on impacts from a wide variety of recent projects across two continents drawing on the ten year period of 2004-2014. We discuss how the spread of IPM presents a novel trajectory of innovation development and dissemination, relying as it has on strong horizontal linkages that create social capital between farmers, between farmers and extensionists, and between researchers of different disciplines. We conclude by discussing barriers and bridges to the wider deployment of IPM in smallholder contexts in Asia and Africa, and draw attention to policy priorities to aid the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Insect pests and Integrated Pest Management in museums, libraries and historic buildings
Author: Pascal Querner
Affiliation: Department of Integrated Biology and Biodiversity Research, Institute of Zoology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria; Institute of Archäometrie, Universitity of Applied Arts Vienna, Expositur Salzgries, A-1010 Vienna, Austria; E-Mail: pascal.querner@boku.ac.at
Abstract: Insect pests are responsible for substantial damages to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Insects like different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or other introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasiodera sericorne), different Dermestides (like Attagenus sp., Anthrnus sp., Dermestes sp.), moths (webbing clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, case bearing clothes moth Tinea pellionella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psecoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts all over the world. In tropical countries termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher destruction of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this review the most important insect pests occurring in museums (natural history, ethnography, modern and historic art, technical), archives, libraries and historic buildings are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. In the second part of the paper the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) concept that is applied in such collections, including non chemical treatment methods used today, is described. Further the challenges and research needs are discussed at the end to show where we are today with IPM in museums.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha Halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Authors: Bruce L. Parker 1,*, Margaret Skinner 1, Svetlana Gouli 1, Cheryl Sullivan 1 and Jae Su Kim 2
Affiliations: 1 Entomology Research Laboratory, University of Vermont, 661 Spear Street, Burlington, VT, 05405-0105 USA; E-Mail: bparker@uvm.edu
2 Department of Agricultural Biology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea
Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in the Far East, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest as well, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA726) as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable formulations were efficacious at 1 x 107 conidia/ml, causing 67-80% mortality in 9 days post treatment. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Integrated Pest Management of Tropical Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Authors: Roger I. Vargas 1, Jaime Piñero 2 and Luc Leblanc 3
Affiliation: 1 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Daniel K. Inouye, U. S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, Hawaii 96720, USA; E-Mail: roger.vargas@ars.usda.gov
2 Lincoln University, Cooperative Research and Extension, 900 Chestnut St; Allen Hall 212, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA; E-Mail: pineroj@lincoln.edu
3 Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Room 310 Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2271, USA; E-Mail: leblancl@ctahr.hawaii.edu
Abstract: Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout the sub-tropical and tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them The arsenal of control methods consists of crop sanitation, insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and biological control using parasitoids. We will present an overview of the tropical pest species in the genus Bactrocera and explore Integrated Pest Management Programs that utilize multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops
Authors: Mark S. Hoddle 1, Keith Warner 2, John Steggall 3 and Karen M. Jetter 4
Affiliations: 1 Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside CA 92521, USA; E-Mail: mark.hoddle@ucr.edu
2 Center for Science, Technology, and Society, Santa Clara University, CA 95053, USA
3 California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA
4 UC Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA
Abstract: Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications to biocontrol programs for some long-established (pre 1990) invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, using lessons from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support classical biological control of this insect.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Aggression in Tephritidae flies: Where, When, Why? Implications for Pest Management and Future Directions
Author: Giovanni Benelli
Affiliation: Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy; E-Mails: g.benelli@sssup.it; benelli.giovanni@gmail.com
Abstract: Aggressive behavior plays a pivotal role all across the Animal Kingdom, allowing acquisition and/or defense of limited resources, such as food, mates and territories, in an outstanding number of species. True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4,000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here I review how, where and when aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae, highlighting how this knowledge could be exploited in Integrated Pest Management programs, with special reference to (i) enhancement of the Sterile Insect Technique (ii) mass-rearing optimization procedures, (iii) competitive displacement in the field guided by inter-specific aggressions. In the final section, a number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on cues evoking aggressive behavior in Tephritidae, the role of previous experience on fighting performances and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggression.

Title: Comparative Toxicities and Residual Activities of Insecticides to Various Life Stages of Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Two Key Pests of Cranberries
Authors: Wanumen A.C.; Salamanca J.; Holdcraft R.; Kyryczenko-Roth V.; Rodriguez-Saona C.
Abstract: Little is known on the susceptibility of various life stages of insect pests of cranberries to insecticides. Thus, studies were conducted to determine the lethal activities of insecticides with different modes of action on Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). In laboratory and semi-field experiments, we evaluated the relative toxicities and residual effects of broad-spectrum and reduced-risk insecticides on egg, larval (1st and 3rd instars), and adult mortality. Some of these reduced-risk insecticides may provide an alternative control option to broad-spectrum insecticides, and likely be more compatible with biological control because of their lower negative impact on natural enemies.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Strategies on Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer from Colombia and Latin America that could be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii
Authors: Luis F. Aristizábal 1,*, Alex E. Bustillo 2 and Steven P. Arthurs 1
Affiliations: 1 Mid-Florida Research & Education Center, Entomology & Nematology Department, University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, 2725 S. Binion Rd, Apopka, FL 32703, USA; E-mail: larist@ufl.edu (L.F.A.); spa@ufl.edu(S.P.A)
2 Centro de Investigación en Palma de Aceite (Cenipalma), Calle 20 A No. 43 A - 50, Pisos 2 y 4 Bogotá D.C., Colombia; E-Mails: alexe.bustillo@gmail.com (A.E.B.)Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: larist@ufl.edu; Tel.: +1-407-462-2748 (ext. 120); Fax: +1-407-814-6186.
Abstract: The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most economically important pest of coffee plantation worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing reduced profits and loss of production due to CBB, which also affects the quality of coffee yield. Several strategies of control that include cultural practices, use of biological control agents (parasitoids), use of microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), application of insecticides, and physical control during harvest and post-harvest have been reported around the world. In addition, sampling methods such as alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in many coffee producing countries. The big questions are: 1- which control strategies are most efficient for control of CBB?, 2-What combination of CBB control strategies are best fit under economical, environment, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii? The discussion of all components of integrated pest management of CBB is addressed in this review. We have focused on a practical approach that may provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences on IPM of CBB from Colombia and Latin America during more than 20 years may be relevant for establishment strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

Title: The Bark Beetles Hylesinus Taranio and Phloeotribus scarabaeoides in the Olive Grove of Spain. Integrated Pest Management to Control These Insects
Authors: Coca-Abia, M.; San Nicolas, M.A. and Crespo, J.
Abstract: Hylesinus taranio and Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are important pests in the olive grove of Spain. These insects can inflict severe damages to crops by digging galleries in phloem and xylem. Currently, synthetic insecticides have been used to control them. Nevertheless, the cryptic behavior of the larvae, lead to the ineffectiveness of some synthetic treatments. We compare the biology and phenology of both species and their parasitoids. In addition, we review the effectiveness of the most used insecticides in olive grove and the most suitable period for the application to reduce the number of treatments. So, to control these pests, an integrate point of view must be carried on in the olive grove of Spain.

Title: Developing and implementing sustainable integrated pest management strategies for Brassica pests in the Pacific Islands
Authors: Mike Furlong and Myron Zalucki
Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia
Abstract: Diamondback moth (DBM; Plutella xylostella) and the large cabbage moth (LCM; Crocidolomia pavonana) are serious pests of brassica crops throughout the islands of the South pacific. Historically there have been attempts at biological control of DBM and some natural enemies have become established, but until recently no effective natural enemies of LCM were known. In this chapter we describe recent work to develop and implement an IPM program for these key pests based on the conservation of endemic natural enemies, rational interventions with selective insecticides and an allied insecticide resistance management strategy.

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