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Insects 2015, 6(2), 297-318; doi:10.3390/insects6020297

An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

1
Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720, USA
2
Cooperative Research and Extension, Lincoln University, 900 Chestnut St., Allen Hall 212, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA
3
Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Room 310, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael J. Stout
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2500 KB, uploaded 3 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: area wide control; reduced risk insecticides; IPM; Bactrocera dorsalis; Bactrocera cucurbitae; Bactrocera tryoni area wide control; reduced risk insecticides; IPM; Bactrocera dorsalis; Bactrocera cucurbitae; Bactrocera tryoni
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vargas, R.I.; Piñero, J.C.; Leblanc, L. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region. Insects 2015, 6, 297-318.

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