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Insects 2015, 6(3), 626-657; doi:10.3390/insects6030626

Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

Open University of Cyprus, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Department of Environmental Conservation and Management, Main OUC building: 33, Giannou Kranidioti Ave., 2220, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus
IRTA, Sustainable Plant Protection (Entomology), IRTA-Mas Badia Agricultural Experimental Station. La Tallada d'Empordà S/N. 17134, Girona. Spain
Technology Transfer Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Edmund Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael J. Stout
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [372 KB, uploaded 26 June 2015]   |  


This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Integrated Pest Management; Technical Guidelines; Sustainable Pest Management; pest control tools Integrated Pest Management; Technical Guidelines; Sustainable Pest Management; pest control tools

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Damos, P.; Colomar, L.-A.E.; Ioriatti, C. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept? Insects 2015, 6, 626-657.

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