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Insects 2014, 5(4), 860-876; doi:10.3390/insects5040860

Densities of Eggs and Nymphs and Percent Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Common Weeds in West Central Florida

1
University of Florida, IFAS, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, 14625 C.R. 672, Wimauma, FL 33598, USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, BARC-West, Bldg 005, Rm. 09A, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 26 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
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Abstract

The density of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the percent parasitism of the nymphs were measured from specimens collected on nine species of weeds, commonly found in west central Florida during the spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. The weeds were direct seeded in 2012 and grown as transplants in 2013 for Randomized Complete Block design experiments. The leaf area of each whole-plant sample was measured and the B. tabaci density parameters were converted to numbers per 100 cm2. In June and July, 2013, whole-plant samples became too large to examine entirely, thus a representative portion of a plant totaling about 1000 cm2 was sampled. Egg and nymph densities and percent parasitism varied greatly among weed species, and were higher overall in 2012 than in 2013. The highest densities of eggs and nymphs were measured on Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia and Emilia fosbergii each year. Lower densities of immature B. tabaci were measured on most dates for Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens alba, Ipomoea lacunosa, Sesbania exaltata and Sida acuta. Nymph to egg ratios of 1:4 were observed on A. theophrasti and S. exaltata in 2012, while less than one nymph per ten eggs was observed overall on A. retroflexus, E. fosbergii and I. lacunosa. In 2012, parasitism rates of 32.3% were measured for B. alba, 23.4% for C. obtusifolia and 17.5% for S. acuta. Of the 206 parasitoids reared out over two seasons, 96.6% were Encarsia spp. and the remainder Eretmocerus spp. The role of weeds in managing B. tabaci is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Encarsia; Eretmocerus; sweetpotato whitefly; weed hosts; whitefly parasitism Encarsia; Eretmocerus; sweetpotato whitefly; weed hosts; whitefly parasitism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Smith, H.A.; Nagle, C.A.; Evans, G.A. Densities of Eggs and Nymphs and Percent Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Common Weeds in West Central Florida. Insects 2014, 5, 860-876.

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