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Insects 2017, 8(3), 88; doi:10.3390/insects8030088

Wavelength and Polarization Affect Phototaxis of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

1
Entomology and Nematology Department, Indian River Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
2
Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), Agriculture Research Service (ARS), US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
3
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32607, USA
4
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida-IFAS, Southwest Citrus Research and Extension Center, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael J. Stout, Jeff Davis, Rodrigo Diaz and Julien M. Beuzelin
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
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Abstract

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a primary pest of citrus due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We evaluated the effects of light of specific wavelength and polarization on phototactic behavior of D. citri using a horizontal bioassay arena. Wavelength-associated positive phototaxis was associated with short wavelength UV (350–405 nm) targets whereas little or no responses were seen in longer wavelength targets in the visible spectrum from green to orange (500–620 nm). Distance walked towards the visual target was greater for UV/blue wavelengths (350–430 nm) than for longer wavelengths. Distances walked towards 365 nm light were greater than to white light, and distances travelled to green, yellow and orange light were similar to those in darkness. A reduced light intensity decreased responses to white and UV (365 nm) light. Polarized light was discriminated and D. citri travelled greater distance in response to white vertically polarized light than to horizontally polarized or unpolarized light of equal intensity. Responses to polarized 405 nm light were greater than to unpolarized light, although without an effect of polarization plane. For 500 nm light, there was no difference between responses to polarized or unpolarized light. There was no effect of age on responses to 405 nm light although 1 day old psyllids travelled faster in the presence of 500 nm green compared to 4–7 day old psyllids. Movement in response to UV and relative stasis in response to longer wavelength light is consistent with observed behaviors of settling on foliage for feeding and dispersing out of the canopy when flush needed for reproduction is scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; Diaphorina citri; phototaxis polarization; vision; behavior Asian citrus psyllid; Diaphorina citri; phototaxis polarization; vision; behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paris, T.M.; Allan, S.A.; Udell, B.J.; Stansly, P.A. Wavelength and Polarization Affect Phototaxis of the Asian Citrus Psyllid. Insects 2017, 8, 88.

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