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Insects 2017, 8(1), 26; doi:10.3390/insects8010026

Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA

1
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1575 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
3
Lady Bug IPM, LLC, 10107 State Hwy 54, Pittsville, WI 54466, USA
4
University of Wisconsin-Extension, Door County, 421 Nebraska St., Sturgeon Bay, WI 54235, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jeffrey A. Davis, Michael J. Stout, Rodrigo Diaz and Julien M. Beuzelin
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
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Abstract

The cranberry fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii Riley), sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens), and blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana Hübner) are historically significant pests of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) in the Upper Midwest (Wisconsin), USA. Their respective natural histories are well documented but correlations between developmental benchmarks (e.g., larval eclosion) and degree-day accruals are not yet known. Treatment timings are critical to the optimization of any given control tactic, and degree-day accrual facilitates optimization by quantifying the developmental status of pest populations. When key developmental benchmarks in the pest life cycle are linked to degree-days, real-time weather data can be used to predict precise treatment timings. Here, we provide the degree-day accumulations associated with discrete biological events (i.e., initiation of flight and peak flight) for the three most consistent moth pests of cranberries in Wisconsin. Moths were trapped each spring and summer from 2003 to 2011. To characterize flight dynamics and average timing of flight initiation, pheromone-baited trap-catch data were tallied for all three pest species within each of seven growing seasons. These flight dynamics were then associated with the corresponding degree-day accumulations generated using the cranberry plant’s developmental thresholds. Finally, models were fit to the data in order to determine the peak flight of each species. The initiation of the spring flight among all three moth species was highly synchronous, aiding in the timing of control tactics; however, there were substantial differences in the timing of peak flight among the moth species. Characterization of the relationship between temperature and pest development allows pest management professionals to target specific life stages, improving the efficacy of any given pest control tactic. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acrobasis vaccinii; blackheaded fireworm; cranberry fruitworm; degree-day; IPM; Rhopobota naevana; Sparganothis sulfureana Acrobasis vaccinii; blackheaded fireworm; cranberry fruitworm; degree-day; IPM; Rhopobota naevana; Sparganothis sulfureana
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Steffan, S.A.; Singleton, M.E.; Sojka, J.; Chasen, E.M.; Deutsch, A.E.; Zalapa, J.E.; Guédot, C. Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA. Insects 2017, 8, 26.

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