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Insects 2017, 8(4), 119; doi:10.3390/insects8040119

Compatibility and Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea with Horticultural Oils for Mitigation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

1
Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2725 South Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703, USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services, 2001 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
3
Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael J. Stout, Jeff Davis, Rodrigo Diaz and Julien M. Beuzelin
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2243 KB, uploaded 8 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Horticultural oils are an important component of integrated management programs of several phytophagous arthropods and pathogens affecting fruit, ornamentals and vegetables in greenhouse and field production systems. Although effective against the target pest, their incompatibility with biological control agents can compromise efforts to develop eco-friendly management programs for important agricultural pests. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of selected refined petroleum oils used in citrus and other horticultural crops with a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR-97) under laboratory conditions. Further, we used leaf disk bioassays to evaluate the combined efficacy of petroleum oils and I. fumosorosea against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a major pest of citrus in the United States. All five petroleum oil treatments (Orchex, Sun Pure, Conoco Blend -1, Conoco Blend -2, and JMS) were compatible with I. fumosorosea blastospores, as none of them were found to affect I. fumosorosea colony-forming units and radial fungal growth measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 days post-inoculation. All mixed treatments performed better than I. fumosorosea alone against D. citri, where the highest mean survival time of D. citri was 12.5 ± 0.7 days. No significant differences in D. citri survival time and I. fumosorosea growth (fungal development index) on dead cadavers, which is important for determining their horizontal transmission, were observed when mixed with Orchex, Sun Pure, Conoco Blend -2, and JMS. Results indicated that horticultural oils in combination with I. fumosorosea could offer citrus growers an alternative treatment for integrating into their current management programs while battling against D. citri in citrus production systems. Due to their eco-friendly, broad-spectrum effect, it could provide control against various citrus pests, while also encouraging the retention of effective chemistries for a longer period in the marketplace. However promising, these combination treatments need to be tested further with I. fumosorosea under grove conditions to confirm their field efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: entomopathogenic fungi; mineral oil; adjuvants; citrus pest; fungal development index entomopathogenic fungi; mineral oil; adjuvants; citrus pest; fungal development index
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, V.; Avery, P.B.; Ahmed, J.; Cave, R.D.; McKenzie, C.L.; Osborne, L.S. Compatibility and Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea with Horticultural Oils for Mitigation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Insects 2017, 8, 119.

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