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Insects 2015, 6(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/insects6010001

Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

1
Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Protection, Asheville, NC 28802, USA
3
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael J. Stout
Received: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Integrated Pest Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [160 KB, uploaded 23 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007–2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt® II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA). Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt® II plastic laminated flakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: gypsy moth; pheromone; disparlure; persistence; second-year effect gypsy moth; pheromone; disparlure; persistence; second-year effect
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Onufrieva, K.S.; Hickman, A.D.; Leonard, D.S.; Tobin, P.C. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations. Insects 2015, 6, 1-12.

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