E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Neuroprotective Strategies 2017"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Katalin Prokai-Tatrai

Center for Neuroscience Discovery, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas; Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: medicinal chemistry: drug design of central nervous system agents; neuropeptides and peptidomimetics; prodrugs for CNS delivery; oxidative stress; estrogens and other phenolic antioxidants; protein carbonylationmedicinal chemistry: drug design of central nervous system agents; neuropeptides and peptidomimetics; prodrugs for CNS delivery; oxidative stress; estrogens and other phenolic antioxidants; protein carbonylation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We started the “Neuroprotective Strategies” collection jointly with Molecules in 2009. It was a great success; a large number of reviews and original research articles were published in the inaugural volume. Since then, the International Journal of Molecular Sciences has successfully continued this collection covering neuroprotection broadly including, but not limited to, preclinical/basic science assessments of various animal models relevant to diseases and agents with potential or perceived translation values.

We open up the “Neuroprotective Strategies” Special Issue to thought-provoking Comments, Opinions and Perspectives, in addition to our traditional Reviews and Research Articles in this field. We especially encourage submissions that address critical issues having prevented successful clinical translations of promising laboratory data. Limitations of in vitro studies and preclinical animal models to mirror multiple pathologies underlying human neurodegenerative diseases, lack of drug-likeness of experimental agents, the need to consider absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology (ADMET) and pharmacokinetics even in the early stage of drug discovery, as well as obstacles of drug delivery to the CNS are only some of the issues that come to mind regard this matter. Critical reviews on relevant patent literature are also welcome. I give thanks for past contributions and look forward to receiving future contributions on the promising and challenging aspects of the field.

The following link points to already published papers within this Special Issue series: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/Neuroprotective_strategies_collection

Prof. Dr. Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging
  • CNS drug design and delivery
  • CNS injury
  • Inflammation
  • In vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration
  • Ischemia
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Oxidative stress
  • Peripheral nerve injury
  • Stroke
  • Stem cells
  • Structure-activity relationship
  • Translational medicine

Published Papers (23 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-23
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Small Heat Shock Protein α-Crystallin B Shows Neuroprotective Properties in a Glaucoma Animal Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2418; doi:10.3390/ijms18112418
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (3773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed
[...] Read more.
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed significant down-regulation of α-crystallin B as an initial reaction to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), followed by a clear but delayed up-regulation, suggesting that this small heat-shock protein plays a pathophysiological role in the disease. This study analyzed the neuroprotective effect of α-crystallin B in an experimental animal model of glaucoma. Significant IOP elevation induced by episcleral vein cauterization resulted in a considerable impairment of the RGCs and the retinal nerve fiber layer. An intravitreal injection of α-crystallin B at the time of the IOP increase was able to rescue the RGCs, as measured in a functional photopic electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and RGC counts. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and antibody-microarray measurements indicated that a α-crystallin injection distinctly up-regulated all of the subclasses (α, β, and γ) of the crystallin protein family. The creation of an interactive protein network revealed clear correlations between individual proteins, which showed a regulatory shift resulting from the crystallin injection. The neuroprotective properties of α-crystallin B further demonstrate the potential importance of crystallin proteins in developing therapeutic options for glaucoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Intranasally Delivered rh-VEGF165 on Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Piglets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2356; doi:10.3390/ijms18112356
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165
[...] Read more.
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization. Design/Methods: Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ng/kg) was administered 15 min after HI and then once daily for 3 days. The animals were perfused transcardially and coronal brains sections were processed for Isolectin, Hoechst, and ki-67 cell proliferation marker staining. To assess the vascular density, 30–35 fields per animal section were manually counted using image J software. Results: The vascular density (vessels/mm2) was 42.0 ± 8.0 in the Nx group, 26.4 ± 4.8 (p < 0.05 vs. Nx) in the HI group, and 46.0 ± 11.9 (p < 0.05 vs. HI) in the HI-VEGF group. When stained for newly formed vessels, via Ki-67 staining, the vascular density was 5.4 ± 3.6 in the Nx group (p < 0.05 vs. HI), 10.2 ± 2.1 in the HI group, and 10.9 ± 2.9 in the HI-VEGF group (p = 0.72 vs. HI). HI resulted in a decrease in vascular density. Intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 resulted in the attenuation of the HI-induced decrease in vascular density. However, rh-VEGF165 did not result in the formation of new vascularity, as evident by ki-67 staining. Conclusions: Intranasal rh-VEGF165 may prevent the HI-induced decrease in the vascular density of the brain and could serve as a promising adjuvant therapy for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Diverse Effects of an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, Donepezil, on Hippocampal Neuronal Death after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2311; doi:10.3390/ijms18112311
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epileptic seizures are short episodes of abnormal brain electrical activity. Many survivors of severe epilepsy display delayed neuronal death and permanent cognitive impairment. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is an effective treatment agent for Alzheimer’s disease. However, the role of donepezil in
[...] Read more.
Epileptic seizures are short episodes of abnormal brain electrical activity. Many survivors of severe epilepsy display delayed neuronal death and permanent cognitive impairment. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is an effective treatment agent for Alzheimer’s disease. However, the role of donepezil in seizure-induced hippocampal injury remains untested. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg). Donepezil (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage in three different settings: (1) pretreatment for three days before the seizure; (2) for one week immediately after the seizure; and (3) for three weeks from three weeks after the seizure. We found that donepezil showed mixed effects on seizure-induced brain injury, which were dependent on the treatment schedule. Pretreatment with donepezil aggravated neuronal death, oxidative injury, and microglia activation. Early treatment with donepezil for one week showed neither adverse nor beneficial effects; however, a treatment duration of three weeks starting three weeks after the seizure showed a significant reduction in neuronal death, oxidative injury, and microglia activation. In conclusion, donepezil has therapeutic effects when injected for three weeks after seizure activity subsides. Therefore, the present study suggests that the therapeutic use of donepezil for epilepsy patients requires a well-conceived strategy for administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Altered Gene Expression of RNF34 and PACAP Possibly Involved in Mechanism of Exercise-Induced Analgesia for Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1962; doi:10.3390/ijms18091962
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
PDF Full-text (5149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite the availability of several modalities of treatment, including surgery, pharmacological agents, and nerve blocks, neuropathic pain is often unresponsive and sometimes progresses to intractable chronic pain. Although exercise therapy is a candidate for treatment of neuropathic pain, the mechanism underlying its efficacy
[...] Read more.
Despite the availability of several modalities of treatment, including surgery, pharmacological agents, and nerve blocks, neuropathic pain is often unresponsive and sometimes progresses to intractable chronic pain. Although exercise therapy is a candidate for treatment of neuropathic pain, the mechanism underlying its efficacy has not been elucidated. To clarify the molecular mechanism for pain relief induced by exercise, we measured Rnf34 and Pacap mRNA levels in the spinal cord dorsal horn of SNL rats, a model of neuropathic pain. SNL model rats exhibited stable mechanical hyperalgesia for at least 6 weeks. When the rats were forced to exercise on a treadmill, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly ameliorated compared with the non-exercise group. Accordingly, gene expression level of Rnf34 and Pacap were also significantly altered in the time course analysis after surgery. These results suggest that exercise therapy possibly involves pain relief in SNL rats by suppressing Rnf34 and Pacap expression in the spinal cord. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Electroacupuncture Promotes Recovery of Motor Function and Reduces Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration in Rodent Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1846; doi:10.3390/ijms18091846
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
PDF Full-text (3350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The pathological hallmark of PD is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta in the brain, ultimately resulting in severe striatal dopamine deficiency and the development of primary motor
[...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The pathological hallmark of PD is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta in the brain, ultimately resulting in severe striatal dopamine deficiency and the development of primary motor symptoms (e.g., resting tremor, bradykinesia) in PD. Acupuncture has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat PD for the control of tremor and pain. Accumulating evidence has shown that using electroacupuncture (EA) as a complementary therapy ameliorates motor symptoms of PD. However, the most appropriate timing for EA intervention and its effect on dopamine neuronal protection remain unclear. Thus, this study used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model (systemic-lesioned by intraperitoneal injection) and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-lesioned rat model (unilateral-lesioned by intra-SN infusion) of PD, to explore the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of EA at the GB34 (Yanglingquan) and LR3 (Taichong) acupoints. We found that EA increased the latency to fall from the accelerating rotarod and improved striatal dopamine levels in the MPTP studies. In the MPP+ studies, EA inhibited apomorphine induced rotational behavior and locomotor activity, and demonstrated neuroprotective effects via the activation of survival pathways of Akt and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the SN region. In conclusion, we observed that EA treatment reduces motor symptoms of PD and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rodent models, whether EA is given as a pretreatment or after the initiation of disease symptoms. The results indicate that EA treatment may be an effective therapy for patients with PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Dexmedetomidine Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MicroRNA Expression in the Adult Rat Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1830; doi:10.3390/ijms18091830
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During surgery or infection, peripheral inflammation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration, and several neurodegenerative diseases. Dexmedetomidine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist, is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties and reduces the incidence of postoperative cognitive impairments. However, on
[...] Read more.
During surgery or infection, peripheral inflammation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration, and several neurodegenerative diseases. Dexmedetomidine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist, is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties and reduces the incidence of postoperative cognitive impairments. However, on the whole the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aims to explore whether dexmedetomidine influences microRNAs (miRNAs) in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Adult Wistar rats were injected with 1 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneal (i.p.) in the presence or absence of 5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine. After 6 h, 24 h, and 7 days, gene expressions of interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and microRNA expressions of miR 124, 132, 134, and 155 were measured in the hippocampus, cortex, and plasma. Dexmedetomidine decreased the LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the hippocampus and cortex via significant reduction of the IL1-β and TNF-α gene expressions after 24 h. Moreover, the LPS-mediated increased expressions of miR 124, 132, 134, and 155 were significantly decreased after dexmedetomidine treatment in both brain regions. In plasma, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced LPS-induced miR 155 after 6 h. Furthermore, there is evidence that miR 132 and 134 may be suitable as potential biomarkers for the detection of neuroinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Toll-Like Receptor-4 Inhibitor TAK-242 Attenuates Motor Dysfunction and Spinal Cord Pathology in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1666; doi:10.3390/ijms18081666
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuroinflammation contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. TLR4, a transmembrane protein that plays a central role in activation of the innate immune system, has been shown to induce microglial activation in ALS models. TLR4 is up-regulated in the spinal cords of hSOD1
[...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. TLR4, a transmembrane protein that plays a central role in activation of the innate immune system, has been shown to induce microglial activation in ALS models. TLR4 is up-regulated in the spinal cords of hSOD1G93A mice. We aimed to examine the effects of specific TLR4 inhibition on disease progression and survival in the hSOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Immunologic effect of TLR4 inhibition in vitro was measured by the effect of TAK-242 treatment on LPS-induced splenocytes proliferation. hSOD1G93A transgenic mice were treated with TAK-242, a selective TLR4 inhibitor, or vehicle. Survival, body weight, and motor behavior were monitored. To evaluate in vivo immunologic modifications associated with TAK-242 treatment, we measured serum IL-1β in the plasma, as well as IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs in the spinal cord in wild-type mice and in TAK-242-treated and vehicle-treated early symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of motor neurons, astrocytes, and microglial reactivity in the spinal cords were performed on symptomatic (100 days old) TAK-242-treated and vehicle-treated hSOD1G93A mice. In vitro, splenocytes taken from 100 days old hSOD1G93A mice showed significantly increased proliferation when exposed to LPS (p = 0.0002), a phenomenon that was reduced by TAK-242 (p = 0.0179). TAK-242 treatment did not attenuate body weight loss or significantly affect survival. However, TAK-242-treated hSOD1G93A mice showed temporary clinical delay in disease progression evident in the ladder test and hindlimb reflex measurements. Plasma IL-1β levels were significantly reduced in TAK-242-treated compared to vehicle-treated hSOD1G93A mice (p = 0.0023). TAK-242 treatment reduced spinal cord astrogliosis and microglial activation and significantly attenuated spinal cord motor neuron loss at early disease stage (p = 0.0259). Compared to wild-type animals, both IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were significantly upregulated in the spinal cords of hSOD1G93A mice. Spinal cord analysis in TAK-242-treated hSOD1G93A mice revealed significant attenuation of TNF-α mRNA (p = 0.0431), but no change in IL-1β mRNA. TLR4 inhibition delayed disease progression, attenuated spinal cord astroglial and microglial reaction, and reduced spinal motor neuron loss in the ALS hSOD1G93A mouse model. However, this effect did not result in increased survival. To our knowledge, this is the first report on TAK-242 treatment in a neurodegenerative disease model. Further studies are warranted to assess TLR4 as a therapeutic target in ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Anti-Oxidative Stress Activity Is Essential for Amanita caesarea Mediated Neuroprotection on Glutamate-Induced Apoptotic HT22 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1623; doi:10.3390/ijms18081623
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A. caesarea aqueous extract (AC) were determined in an l-glutamic acid (l
[...] Read more.
Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A. caesarea aqueous extract (AC) were determined in an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model, and in a d-galactose (d-gal) and AlCl3-developed experimental Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. In 25 mM of l-Glu-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pretreatment with AC strongly improved cell viability, reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells, restored mitochondrial function, inhibited the over-production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+, and suppressed the high expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, calpain 1, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Bax. Compared with HT22 exposed only to l-Glu cells, AC enhanced the phosphorylation activities of protein kinase B (Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and suppressed the phosphorylation activities of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). In the experimental AD mouse, 28-day AC administration at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day strongly enhanced vertical movements and locomotor activities, increased the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test. AC also alleviated the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain and improved the central cholinergic system function, as indicated by an increase acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations and a reduction in acetylcholine esterase (AchE) levels. Moreover, AC reduced ROS levels and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain of experimental AD mice. Taken together, our data provide experimental evidence that A. caesarea may serve as potential food for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Resveratrol-Mediated Protection from Types of Cellular Stress in C6 Glioma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1521; doi:10.3390/ijms18071521
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The polyphenolic phytostilbene, trans-resveratrol, is found in high amounts in several types and tissues of plants, including grapes, and has been proposed to have beneficial effects in the central nervous system due to its activity as an antioxidant. The objective of the
[...] Read more.
The polyphenolic phytostilbene, trans-resveratrol, is found in high amounts in several types and tissues of plants, including grapes, and has been proposed to have beneficial effects in the central nervous system due to its activity as an antioxidant. The objective of the present study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of resveratrol under conditions of oxidative stress or DNA damage, induced by the extracellularly applied oxidant, tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide, or UV-irradiation, respectively. In C6 glioma cells, a model system for glial cell biology and pharmacology, resveratrol was protective against both types of insult. Prevention of tau protein cleavage and of the formation of neurofibrillary tangles were identified as mechanisms of action of resveratrol-mediated protection in both paradigms of cellular damage. However, depending on the type of insult, resveratrol exerted its protective activity differentially: under conditions of chemically induced oxidative stress, inhibition of caspase activity, while with DNA damage, resveratrol regulated tau phosphorylation at Ser422. Results advance our understanding of resveratrol’s complex impact on cellular signaling pathway and contribute to the notion of resveratrol’s role as a pleiotropic therapeutic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Are Necessary for the Protective Effect of Ghrelin in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1402; doi:10.3390/ijms18071402
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ghrelin was shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves (SN) in the protective effect of ghrelin in acute pancreatitis (AP). Studies were performed on male Wistar rats or
[...] Read more.
Ghrelin was shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves (SN) in the protective effect of ghrelin in acute pancreatitis (AP). Studies were performed on male Wistar rats or isolated pancreatic acinar cells. After capsaicin deactivation of sensory nerves (CDSN) or treatment with saline, rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with ghrelin or saline. In those rats, AP was induced by cerulein or pancreases were used for isolation of pancreatic acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar cells were incubated in cerulein-free or cerulein containing solution. In rats with intact SN, pretreatment with ghrelin led to a reversal of the cerulein-induced increase in pancreatic weight, plasma activity of lipase and plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These effects were associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-4 concentration and reduction in histological signs of pancreatic damage. CDSN tended to increase the severity of AP and abolished the protective effect of ghrelin. Exposure of pancreatic acinar cells to cerulein led to increase in cellular expression of mRNA for TNF-α and cellular synthesis of this cytokine. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced this alteration, but this effect was only observed in acinar cells obtained from rats with intact SN. Moreover, CDSN inhibited the cerulein- and ghrelin-induced increase in gene expression and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in those cells. Ghrelin exhibits the protective effect in cerulein-induced AP on the organ and pancreatic acinar cell level. Sensory nerves ablation abolishes this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The 1-Tosylpentan-3-one Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1096; doi:10.3390/ijms18051096
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
PDF Full-text (4808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that the marine compound austrasulfone, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella australis, exerts a neuroprotective effect. The intermediate product in the synthesis of austrasulfone, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, attenuates several inflammatory responses. The present study uses in vitro and in
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the marine compound austrasulfone, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella australis, exerts a neuroprotective effect. The intermediate product in the synthesis of austrasulfone, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, attenuates several inflammatory responses. The present study uses in vitro and in vivo methods to investigate the neuroprotective effect of dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol-modified 1-tosylpentan-3-one (1T3O). Results from in vitro experiments show that 1T3O effectively inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA-induced) activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 in SH-SY5Y cells; and enhances nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Hoechst staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining results reveal that 1T3O significantly inhibits 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. In addition, the addition of an Akt or HO-1 inhibitor decreases the protective effect of 1T3O. Thus, we hypothesize that the anti-apoptotic activity of 1T3O in neuronal cells is mediated through the regulation of the Akt and HO-1 signaling pathways. In vivo experiments show that 1T3O can reverse 6-OHDA-induced reduction in locomotor behavior ability in zebrafish larvae, and inhibit 6-OHDA-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) increase at the same time. According to our in vitro and in vivo results, we consider that 1T3O exerts its anti-apoptotic activities at SH-SY5Y cells after 6-OHDA challenges, probably via the regulation of anti-oxidative signaling pathways. Therefore, this compound may be a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nimodipine but Not Nifedipine Promotes Expression of Fatty Acid 2-Hydroxylase in a Surgical Stress Model Based on Neuro2a Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 964; doi:10.3390/ijms18050964
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
PDF Full-text (2305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nimodipine is well characterized for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been shown to promote a better outcome and less delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Animal and clinical trials show neuroprotective efficacy following nerve injuries. We showed a neuroprotective effect on Neuro2a
[...] Read more.
Nimodipine is well characterized for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been shown to promote a better outcome and less delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Animal and clinical trials show neuroprotective efficacy following nerve injuries. We showed a neuroprotective effect on Neuro2a cells. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed—among others—fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) upregulated by nimodipine in vitro, which is a component of myelin synthesis. Differentiated Neuro2a cells were analyzed for nimodipine-mediated survival considering stress treatment in comparison to nifedipine-treatment. Cell survival was determined by measurement of LDH activity in the culture medium. Nimodipine decreased surgery-like stress-induced cell death of differentiated Neuro2a cells. Neuro2a cell culture was analyzed for changes in FA2H expression induced by nimodipine or nifedipine in surgery-like stress conditions. We analyzed expression levels of FA2H mRNA and protein by qPCR using fa2h specific primers or a FA2H-specific antibody in nimodipine or nifedipine non- and pre-treated Neuro2a cell culture, respectively. Nimodipine but not nifedipine increases FA2H protein levels and also significantly increases mRNA levels of FA2H in both undifferentiated and differentiated Neuro2a cells. Our findings indicate that higher expression of FA2H induced by nimodipine may cause higher survival of Neuro2a cells stressed with surgery-like stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Down-Regulated Drebrin Aggravates Cognitive Impairments in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 800; doi:10.3390/ijms18040800
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
PDF Full-text (12694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of
[...] Read more.
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals. Accordingly, we injected Dbn interference vector (rAAV-mDbn1 ShRNA) into the hippocampus of three-month old APP(swe)/PS1(ΔE9) mice (APP/PS1 mice) and then successfully down-regulated Dbn expression in this brain region. Behavioral tests, including the Morris water maze test, the open field test, and the novel object test were conducted when the animals were nine months old. Subsequently, MicroPET/CT imaging to monitor glucose metabolism was done. We then investigated Aβ, GFAP, PSD-95, MAP2, vimentin, Cox43, and Syn1 expressions in the brain of the experimental animals via immunohistochemical or immunofluorescence methods. We found that AD mice with a low expression of Dbn performed poorly in the behavioral tests and showed decreased glucose utilization. In the brains of these animals, we detected a slight increase of Aβ, GFAP and vimentin and a significant decline of PSD-95. Altogether our data warrant further studies to elucidate the effect of Dbn on the development and progression of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle ROS Production and ERK Activity Are Involved in the Effects of d-β-Hydroxybutyrate and Metformin in a Glucose Deficient Condition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 674; doi:10.3390/ijms18030674
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d
[...] Read more.
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β). ROS inhibitor reversed the glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and restored the reduced phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β. While metformin did not alter cell viability in normal glucose media, it further increased cell death and ROS production under glucose deficiency. However, D-BHB reversed cytotoxicity, ROS production, and the decrease in phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β induced by the glucose deficiency. ERK inhibitor reversed the D-BHB-induced increase in cell viability under glucose deficiency, whereas GSK3β inhibitor did not restore glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, the protective effect of D-BHB against glucose deficiency was confirmed in primary neuronal cells. We demonstrate that glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by ERK inhibition through ROS production, which is attenuated by D-BHB and intensified by metformin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Passage through the Ocular Barriers and Beneficial Effects in Retinal Ischemia of Topical Application of PACAP1-38 in Rodents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 675; doi:10.3390/ijms18030675
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
PDF Full-text (1609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP’s neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in
[...] Read more.
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP’s neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in studies proving PACAP’s retinoprotective effects. Recently, we have shown that PACAP1-27 delivered as eye drops in benzalkonium-chloride was able to cross the ocular barriers and exert retinoprotection in ischemia. Since PACAP1-38 is the dominant form of the naturally occurring PACAP, our aim was to investigate whether the longer form is also able to cross the barriers and exert protective effects in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a model of retinal hypoperfusion. Our results show that radioactive PACAP1-38 eye drops could effectively pass through the ocular barriers to reach the retina. Routine histological analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of the Müller glial cells revealed that PACAP1-38 exerted retinoprotective effects. PACAP1-38 attenuated the damage caused by hypoperfusion, apparent in almost all retinal layers, and it decreased the glial cell overactivation. Overall, our results confirm that PACAP1-38 given in the form of eye drops is a novel protective therapeutic approach to treat retinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Actions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glucocorticoid Stress in Neurogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2312; doi:10.3390/ijms18112312
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Altered neurogenesis is suggested to be involved in the onset of brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotrophic factors are well known for their positive effects on the proliferation/differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Especially, brain-derived neurotrophic
[...] Read more.
Altered neurogenesis is suggested to be involved in the onset of brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotrophic factors are well known for their positive effects on the proliferation/differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Especially, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been extensively investigated because of its roles in the differentiation/maturation of NSCs/NPCs. On the other hand, recent evidence indicates a negative impact of the stress hormone glucocorticoids (GCs) on the cell fate of NSCs/NPCs, which is also related to the pathophysiology of brain diseases, such as depression and autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, studies including ours have demonstrated functional interactions between neurotrophic factors and GCs in neural events, including neurogenesis. In this review, we show and discuss relationships among the behaviors of NSCs/NPCs, BDNF, and GCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Systematic Review of Neuroprotective Strategies during Hypovolemia and Hemorrhagic Shock
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2247; doi:10.3390/ijms18112247
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Severe trauma constitutes a major cause of death and disability, especially in younger patients. The cerebral autoregulatory capacity only protects the brain to a certain extent in states of hypovolemia; thereafter, neurological deficits and apoptosis occurs. We therefore set out to investigate neuroprotective
[...] Read more.
Severe trauma constitutes a major cause of death and disability, especially in younger patients. The cerebral autoregulatory capacity only protects the brain to a certain extent in states of hypovolemia; thereafter, neurological deficits and apoptosis occurs. We therefore set out to investigate neuroprotective strategies during haemorrhagic shock. This review was performed in accordance to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Before the start of the search, a review protocol was entered into the PROSPERO database. A systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and CENTRAL was performed in August 2017. Results were screened and evaluated by two researchers based on a previously prepared inclusion protocol. Risk of bias was determined by use of SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. The retrieved results were qualitatively analysed. Of 9093 results, 119 were assessed in full-text form, 16 of them ultimately adhered to the inclusion criteria and were qualitatively analyzed. We identified three subsets of results: (1) hypothermia; (2) fluid therapy and/or vasopressors; and (3) other neuroprotective strategies (piracetam, NHE1-inhibition, aprotinin, human mesenchymal stem cells, remote ischemic preconditioning and sevoflurane). Overall, risk of bias according to SYRCLE’s tool was medium; generally, animal experimental models require more rigorous adherence to the reporting of bias-free study design (randomization, etc.). While the individual study results are promising, the retrieved neuroprotective strategies have to be evaluated within the current scientific context—by doing so, it becomes clear that specific promising neuroprotective strategies during states of haemorrhagic shock remain sparse. This important topic therefore requires more in-depth research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2230; doi:10.3390/ijms18112230
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed
[...] Read more.
Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Surgical Strategies in Parkinson’s Disease: Role of Preclinical Data
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2190; doi:10.3390/ijms18102190
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies
[...] Read more.
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods. Although most of these interventions have produced positive results in preclinical animal models, either from behavioral or histological studies, they have generally failed to pass randomized clinical trials to validate each approach. We argue that NSI are promising approaches for neurorestoration in PD, but preclinical studies should be planned carefully in order not only to detect benefits but also to detect potential adverse effects. Further, clinical trials should be designed to be able to detect and disentangle neuroprotection from symptomatic effects. In summary, our review study evaluates the pertinence of preclinical models to study NSI for PD and how this affects their efficacy when translated into clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Multi-Targeting Andrographolide, a Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1638; doi:10.3390/ijms18081638
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A key focus in the field of drug discovery has been motivated by the neuroprotection of natural compounds. Cerebral ischemia is a multifaceted pathological process with a series of mechanisms, and a perspective for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herbal medicine or
[...] Read more.
A key focus in the field of drug discovery has been motivated by the neuroprotection of natural compounds. Cerebral ischemia is a multifaceted pathological process with a series of mechanisms, and a perspective for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herbal medicine or natural products is a promising treatment for this disease. Natural compounds with the effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and neurofunctional regulation exhibit therapeutic effects on experimental ischemic brain injury. Conferring to the pharmacological mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, a study found that androgapholide, a diterpene lactone compound, exhibits varying degrees of neuroprotective activities in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of stroke. The neuroprotective mechanisms of andrographolide are suggested as: (I) increasing nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase (Nrf2-HO-1) expression through p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation, (II) inducing cerebral endothelial cells (CEC) apoptosis and caspase-3 activation, (III) down regulating Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (IV) inhibiting hydroxyl radical (OH) formation, and activating transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathways. Recently, several researchers have also been trying to unveil the principal mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effects of andrographolide. Therefore, this review aims to summarize an overview on the neuroprotective effects of andrographolide and exemplifies the essential mechanisms involved. This paper can provide information that andrographolide drug discovery may be a promising strategy for the development of a novel class of neuroprotective drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessReview Can Co-Activation of Nrf2 and Neurotrophic Signaling Pathway Slow Alzheimer’s Disease?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1168; doi:10.3390/ijms18061168
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifaceted disease that is hard to treat by single-modal treatment. AD starts with amyloid peptides, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress and later is accompanied with chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy dysfunction, resulting in more complicated pathogenesis.
[...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifaceted disease that is hard to treat by single-modal treatment. AD starts with amyloid peptides, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress and later is accompanied with chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy dysfunction, resulting in more complicated pathogenesis. Currently, few treatments can modify the complicated pathogenic progress of AD. Compared to the treatment with exogenous antioxidants, the activation of global antioxidant defense system via Nrf2 looks more promising in attenuating oxidative stress in AD brains. Accompanying the activation of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system that reduce the AD-causative factor, oxidative stress, it is also necessary to activate the neurotrophic signaling pathway that replaces damaged organelles and molecules with new ones. Thus, the dual actions to activate both the Nrf2 antioxidant system and neurotrophic signaling pathway are expected to provide a better strategy to modify AD pathogenesis. Here, we review the current understanding of AD pathogenesis and neuronal defense systems and discuss a possible way to co-activate the Nrf2 antioxidant system and neurotrophic signaling pathway with the hope of helping to find a better strategy to slow AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview New Functions of APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase in the Nervous System and Its Role in Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1057; doi:10.3390/ijms18051057
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) regulates important processes in cells, such as the cell cycle, by targeting a set of substrates for degradation. In the last decade, APC/C has been related to several major functions in the nervous system, including
[...] Read more.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) regulates important processes in cells, such as the cell cycle, by targeting a set of substrates for degradation. In the last decade, APC/C has been related to several major functions in the nervous system, including axon guidance, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and neuronal survival. Interestingly, some of the identified APC/C substrates have been related to neurodegenerative diseases. There is an accumulation of some degradation targets of APC/C in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains, which suggests a dysregulation of the protein complex in the disorder. Moreover, recently evidence has been provided for an inactivation of APC/C in AD. It has been shown that oligomers of the AD-related peptide, Aβ, induce degradation of the APC/C activator subunit cdh1, in vitro in neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, in the AD mouse model APP/PS1, lower cdh1 levels were observed in pyramidal neurons in CA1 when compared to age-matched wildtype mice. In this review, we provide a complete list of APC/C substrates that are involved in the nervous system and we discuss their functions. We also summarize recent studies that show neurobiological effects in cdh1 knockout mouse models. Finally, we discuss the role of APC/C in the pathophysiology of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Open AccessReview Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors as a Therapeutic Approach to Neuroprotection and Repair
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 696; doi:10.3390/ijms18040696
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation,
[...] Read more.
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation, neural cell death, axon plasticity and remyelination has shown therapeutic benefit in experimental models of neurological disease and trauma. The second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), are two such intracellular signaling targets, the elevation of which has produced beneficial cellular effects within a range of CNS pathologies. The only known negative regulators of cyclic nucleotides are a family of enzymes called phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or guanylate monophosphate (GMP). Herein, we discuss the structure and physiological function as well as the roles PDEs play in pathological processes of the diseased or injured CNS. Further we review the approaches that have been employed therapeutically in experimental paradigms to block PDE expression or activity and in turn elevate cyclic nucleotide levels to mediate neuroprotection or neurorepair as well as discuss both the translational pathway and current limitations in moving new PDE-targeted therapies to the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
Figures

Back to Top