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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 61; doi:10.3390/ijms19010061

Sexually Dimorphic Outcomes after Neonatal Stroke and Hypoxia-Ischemia

1
U1141 PROTECT, Inserm, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48 boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France
2
EA4475—Pharmacologie de la Circulation Cérébrale, Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4 Avenue de l’Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France
3
Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Children’s University Hospital of Geneva and University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [605 KB, uploaded 26 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cohort studies have demonstrated a higher vulnerability in males towards ischemic and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury in infants born near- or full-term. Male sex was also associated with limited brain repair following neonatal stroke and hypoxia-ischemia, leading to increased incidence of long-term cognitive deficits compared to females with similar brain injury. As a result, the design of pre-clinical experiments considering sex as an important variable was supported and investigated because neuroprotective strategies to reduce brain injury demonstrated sexual dimorphism. While the mechanisms underlining these differences between boys and girls remain unclear, several biological processes are recognized to play a key role in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes: gonadal hormones across developmental stages, vulnerability to oxidative stress, modulation of cell death, and regulation of microglial activation. This review summarizes the current evidence for sex differences in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic and/or ischemic brain injury, considering the major pathways known to be involved in cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with damages of the developing brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; microglia; gender; developing brain; oxidative stress; cell death stroke; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; microglia; gender; developing brain; oxidative stress; cell death
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Charriaut-Marlangue, C.; Besson, V.C.; Baud, O. Sexually Dimorphic Outcomes after Neonatal Stroke and Hypoxia-Ischemia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 61.

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