E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Neuroprotective Strategies 2012"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Katalin Prokai-Tatrai (Website)

Center for Neuroscience Discovery, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas; Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
Fax: +1 817 735 2118
Interests: medicinal chemistry: drug design of central nervous system agents; neuropeptides and peptidomimetics; prodrugs for CNS delivery; oxidative stress; estrogens and other phenolic antioxidants; protein carbonylationmedicinal chemistry: drug design of central nervous system agents; neuropeptides and peptidomimetics; prodrugs for CNS delivery; oxidative stress; estrogens and other phenolic antioxidants; protein carbonylation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue is aimed at both the basic science and clinical aspects of neuroprotective approaches to acute (e.g., brain or spinal cord trauma, stroke), and chronic neurodegenerative (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) diseases. Potential and existing interventions, either as reviews or original papers, to prevent neuronal cell death in the CNS and in the periphery are welcome to this special issue. The concept of neuroprotection in therapeutic terms may be best described by Shouldon (Science, 1998; 282:1072) as "pharmacological interventions that produce enduring benefits by favorably influencing underlying etiology or pathogenesis and thereby forestalling onset of disease or clinical decline." Our life span has increased and it brought about a significant increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. While each neurodegenerative disease has its own characteristics and clinical manifestations, some common markers have been recognized. Among others, increased levels of oxidative/nitrosative damage to DNA, RNA, mitochondria, membranes, and proteins, etc. have been detected in connection with situations of neuronal damage. The wide variety of approaches to rescue neurons includes free radical scavenging antioxidants, ion channel modulators, excitatory amino acid antagonists and neurotrophic factors. Stem-cell based approaches may also represent a new opportunity to treat neurodegenerative diseases. I wish to thank all the authors for their contribution to this special issue.

Dr. Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • aging
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • anti-apoptotic drugs; antioxidants
  • apoptosis
  • axon damage
  • bioavailability
  • blood-brain barrier
  • caspases; cognition
  • excitotoxicity
  • free radicals
  • GABA agonists
  • glaucoma
  • growth factors
  • hydroxyl radical
  • hypothermia
  • hypoxia
  • inflammation; ion channels
  • ron chelators; ischemia
  • ischemic optic neuropathy
  • lipid peroxidation
  • MEK/ERK signaling pathway
  • mitochondria; necrosis
  • neurogenesis
  • neurotrophic factors
  • nitric oxide synthase
  • nitrosative/oxidative stress
  • NMDA agonist
  • nutraceuticals
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • peripheral neurons
  • peroxinitrite
  • posttranslational modification
  • protein aggregates
  • proteomics
  • redox-active metals
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • spinal cord injury
  • stem cell; steroids
  • stroke
  • superoxide dismutase
  • therapeutic window
  • traumatic brain injury

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (18 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-18
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Predicting the Antioxidant Potency of 17β-Estradiol-Related Polycyclic Phenols to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1443-1454; doi:10.3390/ijms14011443
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol and related polycyclic phenols has been well established. This property is an important component of the complex events by which these types of agents are capable to protect neurons against the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. In [...] Read more.
The antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol and related polycyclic phenols has been well established. This property is an important component of the complex events by which these types of agents are capable to protect neurons against the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. In order to relate their molecular structure and properties with their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were conducted. The inhibition of Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, measured through an assay detecting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for about seventy compounds were correlated with various molecular descriptors. We found that lipophilicity (modeled by the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient, logP) was the property that influenced most profoundly the potency of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation in the biological medium studied. Additionally, the important contribution of the bond dissociation enthalpy of the phenolic O-H group, a shape index, the solvent-accessible surface area and the energy required to remove an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital were also confirmed. Several QSAR equations were validated as potentially useful exploratory tools for identifying or designing novel phenolic antioxidants incorporating the structural backbone of 17β-estradiol to assist therapy development against oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessArticle Erythropoietin Modulates Autophagy Signaling in the Developing Rat Brain in an In Vivo Model of Oxygen-Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12939-12951; doi:10.3390/ijms131012939
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 September 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autophagy is a self-degradative process that involves turnover and recycling of cytoplasmic components in healthy and diseased tissue. Autophagy has been shown to be protective at the early stages of programmed cell death but it can also promote apoptosis under certain conditions. [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a self-degradative process that involves turnover and recycling of cytoplasmic components in healthy and diseased tissue. Autophagy has been shown to be protective at the early stages of programmed cell death but it can also promote apoptosis under certain conditions. Earlier we demonstrated that oxygen contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal brain damage, which can be ameliorated by intervention with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). Extrinsic- and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in oxygen induced neurotoxicity but the role of autophagy in this model is unclear. We analyzed the expression of autophagy activity markers in the immature rodent brain after exposure to elevated oxygen concentrations. We observed a hyperoxia-exposure dependent regulation of autophagy-related gene (Atg) proteins Atg3, 5, 12, Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), LC3A-II, and LC3B-II which are all key autophagy activity proteins. Interestingly, a single injection with rhEpo at the onset of hyperoxia counteracted these oxygen-mediated effects. Our results indicate that rhEpo generates its protective effect by modifying the key autophagy activity proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessArticle α-Tocopherol at Nanomolar Concentration Protects PC12 Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Death and Modulates Protein Kinase Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11543-11568; doi:10.3390/ijms130911543
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to compare protective and anti-apoptotic effects of α-tocopherol at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations against 0.2 mM H2O2-induced toxicity in the PC12 neuronal cell line and to reveal protein kinases that contribute to α-tocopherol protective action. The protection by 100 nM α-tocopherol against H2O2-induced PC12 cell death was pronounced if the time of pre-incubation with α-tocopherol was 3–18 h. For the first time, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was shown to depend on its concentration in the nanomolar range (1 nM < 10 nM < 100 nM), if the pre-incubation time was 18 h. Nanomolar and micromolar α-tocopherol decreased the number of PC12 cells in late apoptosis induced by H2O2 to the same extent if pre-incubation time was 18 h. Immunoblotting data showed that α-tocopherol markedly diminished the time of maximal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt)-induced in PC12 cells by H2O2. Inhibitors of MEK 1/2, PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) diminished the protective effect of α-tocopherol against H2O2-initiated toxicity if the pre-incubation time was long. The modulation of ERK 1/2, Akt and PKC activities appears to participate in the protection by α-tocopherol against H2O2-induced death of PC12 cells. The data obtained suggest that inhibition by α-tocopherol in late stage ERK 1/2 and Akt activation induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells makes contribution to its protective effect, while total inhibition of these enzymes is not protective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Erucin against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Oxidative Damage in a Dopaminergic-like Neuroblastoma Cell Line
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10899-10910; doi:10.3390/ijms130910899
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) contributes to the cascade leading to the dysfunction or death of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson’s disease (PD). A strategy to prevent the OS of dopaminergic neurons may be the use of phytochemicals as inducers of endogenous antioxidants and phase [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) contributes to the cascade leading to the dysfunction or death of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson’s disease (PD). A strategy to prevent the OS of dopaminergic neurons may be the use of phytochemicals as inducers of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of the dopaminergic-like neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with isothiocyanate erucin (ER), a compound of cruciferous vegetables, resulted in significant increases of both total glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant capacity at the cytosolic level. The increase of GSH levels was associated with an increase in the resistance of SH-SY5Y cells to neuronal death, in terms of apoptosis, induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with ER was also shown to prevent the redox status impairment, in terms of intracellular ROS and O2•− formation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, early events that are initiators of the apoptotic process, induced by 6-OHDA. Last, the antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of ER were abolished by buthionine sulfoximine, supporting the main role of GSH in the neuroprotective effects recorded by ER. These results suggest that ER may prevent the oxidative damage induced by 6-OHDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Early Anti-Thrombotic Therapy after Ischemic Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8670-8678; doi:10.3390/ijms13078670
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 12 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation following ischemic brain injury is correlated with adverse outcome. Preclinical studies indicate that treatment with acetylsalicylic acid + extended-release dipyridamole (ASA + ER-DP) has anti-inflammatory and thereby neuroprotective effects by inhibition of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression. We hypothesized that early [...] Read more.
Inflammation following ischemic brain injury is correlated with adverse outcome. Preclinical studies indicate that treatment with acetylsalicylic acid + extended-release dipyridamole (ASA + ER-DP) has anti-inflammatory and thereby neuroprotective effects by inhibition of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression. We hypothesized that early treatment with ASA + ER-DP will reduce levels of MCP-1 also in patients with ischemic stroke. The EARLY trial randomized patients with ischemic stroke or TIA to either ASA + ER-DP treatment or ASA monotherapy within 24 h following the event. After 7 days, all patients were treated for up to 90 days with ASA + ER-DP. MCP-1 was determined from blood samples taken from 425 patients on admission and day 8. The change in MCP-1 from admission to day 8 did not differ between patients treated with ASA + ER-DP and ASA monotherapy (p > 0.05). Comparisons within MCP-1 baseline quartiles indicated that patients in the highest quartile (>217–973 pg/mL) showed improved outcome at 90 days if treated with ASA + ER-DP in comparison to treatment with ASA alone (p = 0.004). Our data does not provide any evidence that treatment with ASA + ER-DP lowers MCP-1 in acute stroke patients. However, MCP-1 may be a useful biomarker for deciding on early stroke therapy, as patients with high MCP-1 at baseline appear to benefit from early treatment with ASA + ER-DP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessArticle Deleterious Effects of High Dose Connexin 43 Mimetic Peptide Infusion After Cerebral Ischaemia in Near-Term Fetal Sheep
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 6303-6319; doi:10.3390/ijms13056303
Received: 9 April 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 22 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury at birth is associated with 1–3/1000 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy. Previously, we have shown that connexin 43 hemichannel blockade, with a specific mimetic peptide, reduced the occurrence of seizures, improved recovery of EEG power and sleep state [...] Read more.
Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury at birth is associated with 1–3/1000 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy. Previously, we have shown that connexin 43 hemichannel blockade, with a specific mimetic peptide, reduced the occurrence of seizures, improved recovery of EEG power and sleep state cycling, and improved cell survival following global cerebral ischaemia. In the present study, we examined the dose response for intracerebroventricular mimetic peptide infusion (50 µmol/kg/h for 1 h, followed by 50 µmol/kg/24 h (low dose) or 50 µmol/kg/h for 25 h (high dose) or vehicle only (control group), starting 90 min after the end of ischaemia), following global cerebral ischaemia, induced by 30 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion, in near-term fetal sheep (128 ± 1 days gestation). Both peptide infusion groups were associated with a transient significant increase in EEG power between 2–12 h after ischaemia. The ischaemia-low dose group showed a significant recovery of EEG power from day five compared to the ischaemia-vehicle and -high dose groups. In contrast, the high dose infusion was associated with greater secondary increase in impedance (brain cell swelling), as well as a trend towards a greater increase in lactate concentration and mortality. These data suggest that higher doses of connexin mimetic peptide are not beneficial and may be associated with adverse outcomes, most likely attributable to uncoupling of connexin 43 gap junctions leading to dysfunction of the astrocytic syncytium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection in Diabetic Retinopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 2559-2572; doi:10.3390/ijms14022559
Received: 29 September 2012 / Revised: 12 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 28 January 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy is widely considered to be a neurovascular disease. This is in contrast to its previous identity as solely a vascular disease. Early in the disease progression of diabetes, the major cells in the neuronal component of the retina consist of [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy is widely considered to be a neurovascular disease. This is in contrast to its previous identity as solely a vascular disease. Early in the disease progression of diabetes, the major cells in the neuronal component of the retina consist of retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, both of which have been found to be compromised. A number of retinal function tests also indicated a functional deficit in diabetic retina, which further supports dysfunction of neuronal cells. As an endocrinological disorder, diabetes alters metabolism both systemically and locally in several body organs, including the retina. A growing body of evidences indicates increased levels of excitotoxic metabolites, including glutamate, branched chain amino acids and homocysteine in cases of diabetic retinopathy. Also present, early in the disease, are decreased levels of folic acid and vitamin-B12, which are potential metabolites capable of damaging neurons. These altered levels of metabolites are found to activate several metabolic pathways, leading to increases in oxidative stress and decreases in the level of neurotrophic factors. As a consequence, they may damage retinal neurons in diabetic patients. In this review, we have discussed those potential excitotoxic metabolites and their implications in neuronal damage. Possible therapeutic targets to protect neurons are also discussed. However, further research is needed to understand the exact molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration so that effective neuroprotection strategies can be developed. By protecting retinal neurons early in diabetic retinopathy cases, damage of retinal vessels can be protected, thereby helping to ameliorate the progression of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Peripheral Nerve Injuries and Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Axonal Regeneration and Remyelination: Fact or Fiction?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12911-12924; doi:10.3390/ijms131012911
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Successful nerve regeneration after nerve trauma is not only important for the restoration of motor and sensory functions, but also to reduce the potential for abnormal sensory impulse generation that can occur following neuroma formation. Satisfying functional results after severe lesions are [...] Read more.
Successful nerve regeneration after nerve trauma is not only important for the restoration of motor and sensory functions, but also to reduce the potential for abnormal sensory impulse generation that can occur following neuroma formation. Satisfying functional results after severe lesions are difficult to achieve and the development of interventional methods to achieve optimal functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is of increasing clinical interest. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been used to improve axonal regeneration and functional outcome in a number of studies in spinal cord injury models. The rationale is that the OECs may provide trophic support and a permissive environment for axonal regeneration. The experimental transplantation of OECs to support and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration is much more limited. This chapter reviews studies using OECs as an experimental cell therapy to improve peripheral nerve regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview The Role of Glucose Transporters in Brain Disease: Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12629-12655; doi:10.3390/ijms131012629
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 3 October 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The occurrence of altered brain glucose metabolism has long been suggested in both diabetes and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, the preceding mechanism to altered glucose metabolism has not been well understood. Glucose enters the brain via glucose transporters primarily present at the blood-brain barrier. Any changes in glucose transporter function and expression dramatically affects brain glucose homeostasis and function. In the brains of both diabetic and Alzheimer’s disease patients, changes in glucose transporter function and expression have been observed, but a possible link between the altered glucose transporter function and disease progress is missing. Future recognition of the role of new glucose transporter isoforms in the brain may provide a better understanding of brain glucose metabolism in normal and disease states. Elucidation of clinical pathological mechanisms related to glucose transport and metabolism may provide common links to the etiology of these two diseases. Considering these facts, in this review we provide a current understanding of the vital roles of a variety of glucose transporters in the normal, diabetic and Alzheimer’s disease brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Figures

Open AccessReview Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11753-11772; doi:10.3390/ijms130911753
Received: 29 July 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the [...] Read more.
Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage in Multiple Sclerosis and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Therapeutic Modulation via Fumaric Acid Esters
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11783-11803; doi:10.3390/ijms130911783
Received: 7 August 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in many neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s as well as Huntington’s disease. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in many neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s as well as Huntington’s disease. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic-progressive MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for MS treatment. Here, fumaric acid esters (FAE) are a new, orally available treatment option which had already been tested in phase II/III MS trials demonstrating beneficial effects on relapse rates and magnetic resonance imaging markers. In vitro, application of dimethylfumarate (DMF) leads to stabilization of Nrf2, activation of Nrf2-dependent transcriptional activity and abundant synthesis of detoxifying proteins. Furthermore, application of FAE involves direct modification of the inhibitor of Nrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1. On cellular levels, the application of FAE enhances neuronal survival and protects astrocytes against oxidative stress. Increased levels of Nrf2 are detected in the central nervous system of DMF treated mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. In EAE, DMF ameliorates the disease course and improves preservation of myelin, axons and neurons. Finally, Nrf2 is also up-regulated in the spinal cord of autopsy specimens from untreated patients with MS, probably as part of a naturally occurring anti-oxidative response. In summary, oxidative stress and anti-oxidative pathways are important players in MS pathophysiology and constitute a promising target for future MS therapies like FAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Possible Alterations in β-Synuclein, the Non-Amyloidogenic Homologue of α-Synuclein, during Progression of Sporadic α-Synucleinopathies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11584-11592; doi:10.3390/ijms130911584
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
α-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive decline of motor and non-motor dysfunctions. α-Synuclein (αS) has been shown to play a causative role in neurodegeneration, but the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, there are no radical therapies that can [...] Read more.
α-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive decline of motor and non-motor dysfunctions. α-Synuclein (αS) has been shown to play a causative role in neurodegeneration, but the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, there are no radical therapies that can halt or reverse the disease’s progression. β-Synuclein (βS), the non-amyloidogenic homologue of αS, ameliorates the neurodegeneration phenotype of αS in transgenic (tg) mouse models, as well as in cell free and cell culture systems, which suggests that βS might be a negative regulator of neurodegeneration caused by αS, and that “loss of function” of βS might be involved in progression of α-synucleinopathies. Alternatively, it is possible that “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS occurs during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies, since tg mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H βS develop progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes, such as axonal pathology and dementia. In this short review, we emphasize the aspects of “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Erythropoietin: New Directions for the Nervous System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11102-11129; doi:10.3390/ijms130911102
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 16 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 6 September 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New treatment strategies with erythropoietin (EPO) offer exciting opportunities to prevent the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders that currently lack effective therapy and can progress to devastating disability in patients. EPO and its receptor are present in multiple systems of the [...] Read more.
New treatment strategies with erythropoietin (EPO) offer exciting opportunities to prevent the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders that currently lack effective therapy and can progress to devastating disability in patients. EPO and its receptor are present in multiple systems of the body and can impact disease progression in the nervous, vascular, and immune systems that ultimately affect disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, retinal injury, stroke, and demyelinating disease. EPO relies upon wingless signaling with Wnt1 and an intimate relationship with the pathways of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Modulation of these pathways by EPO can govern the apoptotic cascade to control b-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase-3b, mitochondrial permeability, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Yet, EPO and each of these downstream pathways require precise biological modulation to avert complications associated with the vascular system, tumorigenesis, and progression of nervous system disorders. Further understanding of the intimate and complex relationship of EPO and the signaling pathways of Wnt, PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR are critical for the effective clinical translation of these cell pathways into robust treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances on the Neuroprotective Potential of Antioxidants in Experimental Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10608-10629; doi:10.3390/ijms130810608
Received: 26 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and is believed to be multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are widely considered major consequences, which provide important clues to the disease mechanisms. Studies have explored the role of free radicals and oxidative stress that contributes to the cascade of events leading to dopamine cell degeneration in PD. In general, in-built protective mechanisms consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the CNS play decisive roles in preventing neuronal cell loss due to free radicals. But the ability to produce these antioxidants decreases with aging. Therefore, antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with current treatment methods may represent an attractive strategy for treating or preventing the neurodegeneration seen in PD. Here we summarize the recent discoveries of potential antioxidant compounds for modulating free radical mediated oxidative stress leading to neurotoxicity in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8430-8448; doi:10.3390/ijms13078430
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an [...] Read more.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Clinical Neuroprotective Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7739-7761; doi:10.3390/ijms13067739
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 21 June 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stroke is an enormous public health problem with an imperative need for more effective therapies. In therapies for ischemic stroke, tissue plasminogen activators, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are used mainly for their antithrombotic effects. However, free radical scavengers, minocycline and growth factors [...] Read more.
Stroke is an enormous public health problem with an imperative need for more effective therapies. In therapies for ischemic stroke, tissue plasminogen activators, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are used mainly for their antithrombotic effects. However, free radical scavengers, minocycline and growth factors have shown neuroprotective effects in the treatment of stroke, while antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and hypoglycemic drugs have shown beneficial effects for the prevention of stroke. In the present review, we evaluate the treatment and prevention of stroke in light of clinical studies and discuss new anti-stroke effects other than the main effects of drugs, focusing on optimal pharmacotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Dietary Supplementations as Neuroprotective Therapies: Focus on NT-020 Diet Benefits in a Rat Model of Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7424-7444; doi:10.3390/ijms13067424
Received: 9 March 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stroke remains the number one cause of disability in the adult population. Despite scientific progress in our understanding of stroke pathology, only one treatment (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is able to afford benefits but to less than 3% of ischemic stroke [...] Read more.
Stroke remains the number one cause of disability in the adult population. Despite scientific progress in our understanding of stroke pathology, only one treatment (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is able to afford benefits but to less than 3% of ischemic stroke patients. The development of experimental dietary supplement therapeutics designed to stimulate endogenous mechanisms that confer neuroprotection is likely to open new avenues for exploring stroke therapies. The present review article evaluates the recent literature supporting the benefits of dietary supplementation for the therapy of ischemic stroke. This article focuses on discussing the medical benefits of NT-020 as an adjunct agent for stroke therapy. Based on our preliminary data, a pre-stroke treatment with dietary supplementation promotes neuroprotection by decreasing inflammation and enhancing neurogenesis. However, we recognize that a pre-stroke treatment holds weak clinical relevance. Thus, the main goal of this article is to provide information about recent data that support the assumption of natural compounds as neuroprotective and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a dietary supplement called NT-020 as in a stroke model. We focus on a systematic assessment of practical treatment parameters so that NT-020 and other dietary supplementations can be developed as an adjunct agent for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. We offer rationale for determining the optimal dosage, therapeutic window, and mechanism of action of NT-020 as a dietary supplement to produce neuroprotection when administered immediately after stroke onset. We highlight our long-standing principle in championing both translational and basic science approaches in an effort to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of NT-020 as dietary supplementation in the treatment of stroke. We envision dietary supplementation as an adjunct therapy for stroke at acute, subacute, and even chronic periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Neuroglobin, a Novel Target for Endogenous Neuroprotection against Stroke and Neurodegenerative Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 6995-7014; doi:10.3390/ijms13066995
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 31 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain neurons and tissues respond to sublethal injury by activating endogenous protective pathways. Recently, following the failure of a large number of clinical trials for protective strategies against stroke that aim to inhibit a specific ischemia response pathway, endogenous neuroprotection has emerged [...] Read more.
Brain neurons and tissues respond to sublethal injury by activating endogenous protective pathways. Recently, following the failure of a large number of clinical trials for protective strategies against stroke that aim to inhibit a specific ischemia response pathway, endogenous neuroprotection has emerged as a more promising and hopeful strategy for development of therapeutics against stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an oxygen-binding globin protein that is highly and specifically expressed in brain neurons. Accumulating evidence have clearly demonstrated that Ngb is an endogenous neuroprotective molecule against hypoxic/ischemic and oxidative stress-related insults in cultured neurons and animals, as well as neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, thus any pharmacological strategy that can up-regulate endogenous Ngb expression may lead to novel therapeutics against these brain disorders. In this review, we summarize recent studies about the biological function, regulation of gene expression, and neuroprotective mechanisms of Ngb. Furthermore, strategies for identification of chemical compounds that can up-regulate endogenous Ngb expression for neuroprotection against stroke and neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJMS Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijms@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJMS
Back to Top