Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Nanomaterials, Volume 6, Issue 4 (April 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-26
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 58; doi:10.3390/nano6040058
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials have shown tremendous potentials to impact the broad field of biological sensing. Nanomaterials, with extremely small sizes and appropriate surface modifications, allow intimate interaction with target biomolecules. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
Open AccessEditorial Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 63; doi:10.3390/nano6040063
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond” of Nanomaterials is focused on advancements in the synthesis, optimization, and characterization of nanostructured materials, with an emphasis on the application of nanomaterials for building high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and future systems.[...]
[...] Read more.
This Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond” of Nanomaterials is focused on advancements in the synthesis, optimization, and characterization of nanostructured materials, with an emphasis on the application of nanomaterials for building high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and future systems.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of Complementary Nanostructures for Light Trapping in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 55; doi:10.3390/nano6040055
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated two complementary nanostructures, nanocavity and nanopillar arrays, for light absorption enhancement in depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. A facile complementary fabrication process is demonstrated for patterning these nanostructures over the large area required for light trapping in
[...] Read more.
We have investigated two complementary nanostructures, nanocavity and nanopillar arrays, for light absorption enhancement in depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. A facile complementary fabrication process is demonstrated for patterning these nanostructures over the large area required for light trapping in photovoltaic devices. The simulation results show that both proposed periodic nanostructures can effectively increase the light absorption in CQD layer of the solar cell throughout the near-infrared region where CQD solar cells typically exhibit weak light absorption. The complementary fabrication process for implementation of these nanostructures can pave the way for large-area, inexpensive light trapping implementation in nanostructured solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Solar Cells) Printed Edition available
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 56; doi:10.3390/nano6040056
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to
[...] Read more.
The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ex-Vivo Tissues Engineering Modeling for Reconstructive Surgery Using Human Adult Adipose Stem Cells and Polymeric Nanostructured Matrix
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/nano6040057
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected
[...] Read more.
The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected stem cell type, based on their capability to differentiate toward committed cell lineages, and a biomaterial, that, due to own characteristics (e.g., chemical, electric, mechanical property, nano-topography, and nanostructured molecular components), could serve as active scaffold to generate a bio-hybrid tissue/organ. Thus, effort has been made on the generation of in vitro tissue engineering modeling. Here, we present an in vitro model where human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate adipose tissue and breast adipose tissue, cultured on polymeric INTEGRA® Meshed Bilayer Wound Matrix (selected based on conventional clinical applications) are evaluated for their potential application for reconstructive surgery toward bone and adipose tissue. We demonstrated that human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate and breast tissue have similar stemness properties and are suitable for tissue engineering applications. Finally, the overall results highlighted lipoaspirate adipose tissue as a good source for the generation of adult adipose stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nickel Decorated on Phosphorous-Doped Carbon Nitride as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Reduction of Nitrobenzenes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 59; doi:10.3390/nano6040059
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (11370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nickel nanoparticle-decorated phosphorous-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ni@g-PC3N4) was synthesized and used as an efficient photoactive catalyst for the reduction of various nitrobenzenes under visible light irradiation. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as the source of protons and electrons for the
[...] Read more.
Nickel nanoparticle-decorated phosphorous-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ni@g-PC3N4) was synthesized and used as an efficient photoactive catalyst for the reduction of various nitrobenzenes under visible light irradiation. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as the source of protons and electrons for the intended reaction. The developed photocatalyst was found to be highly active and afforded excellent product yields under mild experimental conditions. In addition, the photocatalyst could easily be recovered and reused for several runs without any detectable leaching during the reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Catalysis) Printed Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Lithium Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Induction Thermal Plasmas
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 60; doi:10.3390/nano6040060
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lithium metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Four different systems—Li–Mn, Li–Cr, Li–Co, and Li–Ni—were compared to understand formation mechanism of Li–Me oxide nanoparticles in thermal plasma process. Analyses of X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy showed that Li–Me oxide nanoparticles were
[...] Read more.
Lithium metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Four different systems—Li–Mn, Li–Cr, Li–Co, and Li–Ni—were compared to understand formation mechanism of Li–Me oxide nanoparticles in thermal plasma process. Analyses of X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy showed that Li–Me oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in Li–Mn, Li–Cr, and Li–Co systems. Spinel structured LiMn2O4 with truncated octahedral shape was formed. Layer structured LiCrO2 or LiCoO2 nanoparticles with polyhedral shapes were also synthesized in Li–Cr or Li–Co systems. By contrast, Li–Ni oxide nanoparticles were not synthesized in the Li–Ni system. Nucleation temperatures of each metal in the considered system were evaluated. The relationship between the nucleation temperature and melting and boiling points suggests that the melting points of metal oxides have a strong influence on the formation of lithium metal oxide nanoparticles. A lower melting temperature leads to a longer reaction time, resulting in a higher fraction of the lithium metal oxide nanoparticles in the prepared nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 61; doi:10.3390/nano6040061
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading
[...] Read more.
Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX) of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w) ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S.) mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A.) actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL) at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL) at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care. Full article
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 64; doi:10.3390/nano6040064
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Solar Cells) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of Gd-Functionalized Gold Nanoclusters as Potential MRI/CT Contrast Agents
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 65; doi:10.3390/nano6040065
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multi-modal imaging plays a key role in the earlier detection of disease. In this work, a facile bioinspired method was developed to synthesize Gd-functionalized gold nanoclusters (Gd-Au NCs). The Gd-Au NCs exhibit a uniform size, with an average size of 5.6 nm in
[...] Read more.
Multi-modal imaging plays a key role in the earlier detection of disease. In this work, a facile bioinspired method was developed to synthesize Gd-functionalized gold nanoclusters (Gd-Au NCs). The Gd-Au NCs exhibit a uniform size, with an average size of 5.6 nm in dynamic light scattering (DLS), which is a bit bigger than gold clusters (3.74 nm, DLS), while the fluorescent properties of Gd-Au NCs are almost the same as that of Au NCs. Moreover, the Gd-Au NCs exhibit a high longitudinal relaxivity value (r1) of 22.111 s−1 per mM of Gd in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), which is six times higher than that of commercial Magnevist (A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid, Gd-DTPA, r1 = 3.56 mM−1·s−1). Besides, as evaluated by nano single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) the Gd-Au NCs have a potential application as CT contrast agents because of the Au element. Finally, the Gd-Au NCs show little cytotoxicity, even when the Au concentration is up to 250 μM. Thus, the Gd-Au NCs can act as multi-modal imaging contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Automatic Echographic Detection of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes in a Low Concentration Range
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 66; doi:10.3390/nano6040066
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding “raw” radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a
[...] Read more.
Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding “raw” radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a low range (5.5–66 × 1010 part/mL, equivalent to 0.25–3.00 mg/mL) were dispersed in custom-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms and imaged through a clinically-available echographic device at a conventional ultrasound diagnostic frequency (10 MHz). The most effective response (sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 95%), was found at a concentration of 33 × 1010 part/mL (1.5 mg/mL), representing a kind of best compromise between the need of enough particles to introduce detectable spectral modifications in the backscattered signal and the necessity to avoid the losses of spectral peculiarity associated to higher HNT concentrations. Based on theoretical considerations and quantitative comparisons with literature-available results, this concentration could also represent an optimal concentration level for the automatic echographic detection of different solid nanoparticles when employing a similar ultrasound frequency. Future dedicated studies will assess the actual clinical usefulness of the proposed approach and the potential of HNTs for effective theranostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 67; doi:10.3390/nano6040067
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated
[...] Read more.
The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato)
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 68; doi:10.3390/nano6040068
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5–10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components
[...] Read more.
Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5–10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components present in the soil might fundamentally alter the potential of plant bioaccumulation of ENMs is unclear. Here, we used two genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc), a mutant which does not allow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization, and its progenitor, 76R, to examine how colonization by AMF alters trends of gold ENM bioaccumulation from a natural soil. Gold was taken up and bioaccumulated by plants of both genotypes. Gold concentrations were significantly higher in the rmc treatment although this was likely attributable to the large differences in biomass between the 76R and rmc plants. Regardless, there was little evidence that AMF played a significant role in trafficking Au ENMs into the plants. Furthermore, despite very low NH4NO3 extractable Au concentrations, Au accumulated at the root-soil interface. Although this observation would seem to suggest that ENMs may have potential to influence this particularly biologically active and important soil compartment, we observed no evidence of this here, as the 76R plants developed a robust AMF symbiosis despite accumulation of Au ENMs at the rhizoplane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cationic Nanoparticles Assembled from Natural-Based Steroid Lipid for Improved Intracellular Transport of siRNA and pDNA
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 69; doi:10.3390/nano6040069
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Developing new functional biomaterials from biocompatible natural-based resources for gene/drug delivery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this work, we prepared a series of cationic nanoparticles (Diosarg-DOPE NPs) by assembly of a natural steroid diosgenin-based cationic lipid (Diosarg) with commercially-available helper
[...] Read more.
Developing new functional biomaterials from biocompatible natural-based resources for gene/drug delivery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this work, we prepared a series of cationic nanoparticles (Diosarg-DOPE NPs) by assembly of a natural steroid diosgenin-based cationic lipid (Diosarg) with commercially-available helper lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorethanolamine (DOPE). These cationic Diosarg-DOPE NPs were able to efficiently bind siRNA and plasmid DNA (pDNA) via electrostatic interactions to form stable, nano-sized cationic lipid nanoparticles instead of lamellar vesicles in aqueous solution. The average particle size, zeta potentials and morphologies of the siRNA and pDNA complexes of the Diosarg-DOPE NPs were examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity of NPs depends on the dose and assembly ratio of the Diosarg and DOPE. Notably, the intracellular transportation efficacy of the exogenesis siRNA and pDNA could be greatly improved by using the Diosarg-DOPE NPs as the cargoes in H1299 cell line. The results demonstrated that the self-assembled Diosarg-DOPE NPs could achieve much higher intracellular transport efficiency for siRNA or pDNA than the cationic lipid Diosarg, indicating that the synergetic effect of different functional lipid components may benefit the development of high efficiency nano-scaled gene carriers. Moreover, it could be noted that the traditional “lysosome localization” involved in the intracellular trafficking of the Diosarg and Diosarg-DOPE NPs, indicating the co-assembly of helper lipid DOPE, might not significantly affect the intracellular localization features of the cationic lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA-Based Nanotechnology)
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Highly-Efficient Plasmon-Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Created by Means of Dry Plasma Reduction
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 70; doi:10.3390/nano6040070
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction
[...] Read more.
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction (DPR) and coating TiO2 paste onto the modified FTO glass through a screen printing method. As a result, the FTO/Ag-NPs/TiO2 photo-anode showed an enhancement of its photocurrent, whereas the FTO/Au-NPs/TiO2 photo-anode showed less photocurrent than even a standard photo-anode fabricated by simply coating TiO2 paste onto the modified FTO glass through screen printing. This result stems from the small size and high areal number density of Au-NPs on FTO glass, which prevent the incident light from reaching the TiO2 layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gold Nanoparticles: An Efficient Antimicrobial Agent against Enteric Bacterial Human Pathogen
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 71; doi:10.3390/nano6040071
Received: 13 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead
[...] Read more.
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent. Ultra Violet (UV)-visible spectroscopy revealed the size of chemically synthesized gold nanoparticle as 6–40 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the size and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis determined the polycrystalline nature of gold nanoparticles. The present findings explained how gold nanoparticles lyse Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials’ Research: Selection from ICSSP'15)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Structural and Magnetic Response in Bimetallic Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 72; doi:10.3390/nano6040072
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 30 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman
[...] Read more.
Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement technique confirms single phase nanoparticles with average seed size of about 18 nm and thickness of shell is 3 nm, which corroborates with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops showed interesting behavior. We have observed large coercivity 15.8 kOe at T = 5 K, whereas maximum saturation magnetization (125 emu/g) is attained at T = 100 K for CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization decreases due to structural distortions at the surface of shell below 100 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) plots show that synthesized nanoparticles are ferromagnetic till room temperature and it has been noticed that core/shell sample possess high blocking temperature than Cobalt Ferrite. Results indicate that presence of iron oxide shell significantly increases magnetic parameters as compared to the simple cobalt ferrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials’ Research: Selection from ICSSP'15)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Temperature-Dependent Magnetic Response of Antiferromagnetic Doping in Cobalt Ferrite Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 73; doi:10.3390/nano6040073
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work MnxCo1−xFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method. Phase purity and structural analyses of synthesized NPs were performed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the presence of
[...] Read more.
In this work MnxCo1−xFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method. Phase purity and structural analyses of synthesized NPs were performed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the presence of highly crystalline and narrowly-dispersed NPs with average diameter of 14 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum was measured in the range of 400–4000 cm−1 which confirmed the formation of vibrational frequency bands associated with the entire spinel structure. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties in anti-ferromagnet (AFM) and ferromagnet (FM) structure were investigated with the aid of a physical property measurement system (PPMS). It was observed that magnetic interactions between the AFM (Mn) and FM (CoFe2O4) material arise below the Neel temperature of the dopant. Furthermore, hysteresis response was clearly pronounced for the enhancement in magnetic parameters by varying temperature towards absolute zero. It is shown that magnetic properties have been tuned as a function of temperature and an externally-applied field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials’ Research: Selection from ICSSP'15)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Size- and Shape-Dependent Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemical Routes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 74; doi:10.3390/nano6040074
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (3987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size,
[...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of different spherical silver colloids occurring in the wavelength range of 397 to 504 nm, whereas triangular particles showed two peaks, first at 392 nm and second at 789 nm as measured by UV-VIS. The XRD spectra of the prepared samples indicated the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. The in vitro antibacterial properties of all synthesized AgNPs against two types of Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were examined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials’ Research: Selection from ICSSP'15)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone) Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 75; doi:10.3390/nano6040075
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of
[...] Read more.
The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition) particles in the polymeric solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 77; doi:10.3390/nano6040077
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por(+). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8
[...] Read more.
Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por(+). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8 nmol/mg material; with thermostability to 300 °C. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against four bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE family of pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; Acinetobacter baumannii; and Klebsiella pneumonia), as well as Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrated broad photodynamic inactivation of all bacterial strains studied upon illumination (30 min; 65 ± 5 mW/cm2; 400–700 nm) by a minimum of 99.9996+% (5.8 log units) regardless of taxonomic classification. PAN-Por(+) also inactivated human adenovirus-5 (~99.8% reduction in PFU/mL) and vesicular stomatitis virus (>7 log units reduction in PFU/mL). When compared to cellulose-based materials employing this same photosensitizer; the higher levels of photodynamic inactivation achieved here with PAN-Por(+) are likely due to the combined effects of higher photosensitizer loading and a greater surface area imparted by the use of nanofibers. These results demonstrate the potential of photosensitizer-embedded polyacrylonitrile nanofibers to serve as scalable scaffolds for anti-infective or self-sterilizing materials against both bacteria and viruses when employing a photodynamic inactivation mode of action. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Induction and Photoacoustic Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells Using Astaxanthin-Reduced Gold Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 78; doi:10.3390/nano6040078
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astaxanthin, a kind of photosynthetic pigment, was employed for gold nanoparticle formation. Nanoparticles were characterized using Ulteraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and the possible presence of astaxanthin functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxic
[...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, a kind of photosynthetic pigment, was employed for gold nanoparticle formation. Nanoparticles were characterized using Ulteraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and the possible presence of astaxanthin functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxic effect of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells) using a tetrazolium-based assay, and synthesized nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent toxicity. The morphology upon cell death was differentiated through fluorescent microscopy using different stains that predicted apoptosis. The synthesized nanoparticles were applied in ultrasound-coupled photoacoustic imaging to obtain good images of treated cells. Astaxanthin-reduced gold nanoparticle has the potential to act as a promising agent in the field of photo-based diagnosis and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Cancer Therapies)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Synergistic Effect of Functionalized Nanokaolin Decorated MWCNTs on the Performance of Cellulose Acetate (CA) Membranes Spectacular
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 79; doi:10.3390/nano6040079
Received: 26 December 2015 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
PDF Full-text (4533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to enhance salt rejection level and high pressure mechanical integrity, functionalized nanokaolin decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes (FNKM, 0–5 wt % loading) were incorporated into a cellulose acetate (CA) matrix using high temperature solution mixing methodology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction
[...] Read more.
In order to enhance salt rejection level and high pressure mechanical integrity, functionalized nanokaolin decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes (FNKM, 0–5 wt % loading) were incorporated into a cellulose acetate (CA) matrix using high temperature solution mixing methodology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The obtained results revealed that with increasing FNKM concentration in the host polymeric matrix, composite membrane’s structural, functional, thermal, water permeation/flux and salt rejection characteristics were also modified accordingly. Percent enhancement in salt rejection was increased around threefold by adding 5 wt % FNKM in CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials’ Research: Selection from ICSSP'15)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Influence of Fluorination on Nano-Scale Phase Separation and Photovoltaic Performance of Small Molecular/PC71BM Blends
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 80; doi:10.3390/nano6040080
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To investigate the fluorination influence on the photovoltaic performance of small molecular based organic solar cells (OSCs), six small molecules based on 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT), and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as core and fluorinated phenyl (DFP) and triphenyl amine (TPA) as different terminal units (DFP-BT-DFP, DFP-BT-TPA,
[...] Read more.
To investigate the fluorination influence on the photovoltaic performance of small molecular based organic solar cells (OSCs), six small molecules based on 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT), and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as core and fluorinated phenyl (DFP) and triphenyl amine (TPA) as different terminal units (DFP-BT-DFP, DFP-BT-TPA, TPA-BT-TPA, DFP-DPP-DFP, DFP-DPP-TPA, and TPA-DPP-TPA) were synthesized. With one or two fluorinated phenyl as the end group(s), HOMO level of BT and DPP based small molecular donors were gradually decreased, inducing high open circuit voltage for fluorinated phenyl based OSCs. DFP-BT-TPA and DFP-DPP-TPA based blend films both displayed stronger nano-scale aggregation in comparison to TPA-BT-TPA and TPA-DPP-TPA, respectively, which would also lead to higher hole motilities in devices. Ultimately, improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.17% and 1.22% was acquired for DFP-BT-TPA and DFP-DPP-TPA based devices, respectively. These results demonstrated that the nano-scale aggregation size of small molecules in photovoltaic devices could be significantly enhanced by introducing a fluorine atom at the donor unit of small molecules, which will provide understanding about the relationship of chemical structure and nano-scale phase separation in OSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Solar Cells) Printed Edition available
Figures

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Open AccessReview Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles: Recent Progress in Thermal Therapy and Imaging
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 76; doi:10.3390/nano6040076
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided
[...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles. The main heating sources for heat-induced therapies are the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the near infrared region and alternating magnetic fields (AMFs). The different families of inorganic nanoparticles employed for SPR- and AMF-based thermal therapies and imaging are described. Furthermore, inorganic nanomaterials developed for multimodal therapies with different and multi-imaging modalities are presented in detail. Finally, relevant clinical perspectives and the future scope of inorganic nanoparticles in image-guided therapies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
Figures

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Review

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Tsai, S.-L.; et al. The Coupled Photothermal Reaction and Transport in a Laser Additive Metal Nanolayer Simultaneous Synthesis and Pattering for Flexible Electronics. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 12
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 62; doi:10.3390/nano6040062
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to an error during production, the Figure 7b in the published paper [1] was incorrect. The correct figure is as follows:[...] Full article
Figures

Figure 7

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Nanomaterials Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Nanomaterials Edit a special issue Review for Nanomaterials
logo
loading...
Back to Top