Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ming Su

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials; nanomedicines; biosensing; cancer detection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials have shown tremendous potentials to impact the broad field of biological sensing. Nanomaterials, with extremely small sizes and appropriate surface modifications, allow intimate interaction with target biomolecules. A variety of nanostructured materials with unique optical, electric, magnetic, and electrochemical signatures have been used to detect molecular biomarkers with extremely high sensitivities by amplifying target binding events into detectable physical signals. Nanomaterials have been widely used for in vitro and in vivo detection of molecular biomarkers of diseases (such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases) released into body fluids of patients during disease progression. Nanomaterials can also be used as imaging contrasts to map out the spatial distribution of biomarkers in patients when combined with an in vivo imaging modality such as MRI or CT.
This Special Issue is focused on the synthesis, properties, and prospective biological sensing applications of nanomaterials in chemistry, physics, biology, and medicine.

Prof. Dr. Ming Su
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • nanomedicine
  • sensing
  • biomarkers
  • cancers
  • diseases

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 58; doi:10.3390/nano6040058
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials have shown tremendous potentials to impact the broad field of biological sensing. Nanomaterials, with extremely small sizes and appropriate surface modifications, allow intimate interaction with target biomolecules. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Characterization of Nanoparticle Dispersion in Red Blood Cell Suspension by the Lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary Method
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(2), 30; doi:10.3390/nano6020030
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nanodrug-carrier delivery in the blood stream is strongly influenced by nanoparticle (NP) dispersion. This paper presents a numerical study on NP transport and dispersion in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions under shear and channel flow conditions, utilizing an immersed boundary fluid-structure interaction model
[...] Read more.
Nanodrug-carrier delivery in the blood stream is strongly influenced by nanoparticle (NP) dispersion. This paper presents a numerical study on NP transport and dispersion in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions under shear and channel flow conditions, utilizing an immersed boundary fluid-structure interaction model with a lattice Boltzmann fluid solver, an elastic cell membrane model and a particle motion model driven by both hydrodynamic loading and Brownian dynamics. The model can capture the multiphase features of the blood flow. Simulations were performed to obtain an empirical formula to predict NP dispersion rate for a range of shear rates and cell concentrations. NP dispersion rate predictions from the formula were then compared to observations from previous experimental and numerical studies. The proposed formula is shown to accurately predict the NP dispersion rate. The simulation results also confirm previous findings that the NP dispersion rate is strongly influenced by local disturbances in the flow due to RBC motion and deformation. The proposed formula provides an efficient method for estimating the NP dispersion rate in modeling NP transport in large-scale vascular networks without explicit RBC and NP models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication A Graphene Oxide-Based Fluorescent Platform for Probing of Phosphatase Activity
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 20; doi:10.3390/nano6010020
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We presented a strategy for fabricating graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent biosensors to monitor the change of phosphorylation state and detect phosphatase activity. By regulating the interaction between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged amino residue, we found that GO showed
[...] Read more.
We presented a strategy for fabricating graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent biosensors to monitor the change of phosphorylation state and detect phosphatase activity. By regulating the interaction between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged amino residue, we found that GO showed different quenching efficiency toward the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated dye-labeled peptides. To demonstrate the application of our method, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was tested as a model enzyme with phosphorylated fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled short peptide FITC–Gly–Gly–Gly–Tyr(PO32−)–Arg as the probe. When the negatively charged phosphate group in the Tyr residue was removed from the peptide substrate by enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting FITC–Gly–Gly–Gly–Tyr–Arg was readily adsorbed onto the GO surface through electrostatic interaction. As a result, fluorescence quenching was observed. Furthermore, the method was applied for the screening of phosphatase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determination of Cd2+ and Pb2+ Based on Mesoporous Carbon Nitride/Self-Doped Polyaniline Nanofibers and Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/nano6010007
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 13 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The fabrication and evaluation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (SPAN)/mesoporous carbon nitride (MCN) and bismuth for simultaneous determination of trace Cd2+ and Pb2+ by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) are presented here. The morphology
[...] Read more.
The fabrication and evaluation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (SPAN)/mesoporous carbon nitride (MCN) and bismuth for simultaneous determination of trace Cd2+ and Pb2+ by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) are presented here. The morphology properties of SPAN and MCN were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrochemical properties of the fabricated electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Experimental parameters, such as deposition time, pulse potential, step potential, bismuth concentration and NaCl concentration, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the fabricated electrode exhibited linear calibration curves ranging from 5 to 80 nM for Cd2+ and Pb2+. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.7 nM for Cd2+ and 0.2 nM for Pb2+ (S/N = 3). Additionally, the repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference ability and application were also investigated, and the proposed electrode exhibited excellent performance. The proposed method could be extended for other heavy metal determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene and MWCNT Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with AuNPs for Laccase Biosensor Development
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1995-2006; doi:10.3390/nano5041995
Received: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs) could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs) could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on nanoparticles. Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) was immobilized over MWCNTs and GPH previously modified with AuNPs (of 5 and 10 nm). The characterization of the modified electrode surface has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the use of AuNPs for modification of both graphene and MWCNTs screen-printed electrode surfaces would increase the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. MWCNTs showed better results than GPH in terms of higher electroactive area formation after modification with AuNPs. The two modified nanostructured electrodes were successively proven to efficiently immobilize the TvL; the electrochemical sensing properties of the GPH- and MWCNT-based AuNPs-TvL biosensors were investigated by choosing 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid diammonium salt (ABTS), catechol and caffeic acid as laccase mediators; and the kinetic parameters of the laccase biosensor were carefully evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoporous Carbon Nanofibers Decorated with Platinum Nanoparticles for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of H2O2
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1891-1905; doi:10.3390/nano5041891
Received: 29 August 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe the preparation of nanoporous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in this work by electrospining polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers and subsequent carbonization and binding of PtNPs. The fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were further utilized to modify glass carbon electrodes and
[...] Read more.
We describe the preparation of nanoporous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in this work by electrospining polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers and subsequent carbonization and binding of PtNPs. The fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were further utilized to modify glass carbon electrodes and used for the non-enzymatic amperometric biosensor for the highly sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The morphologies of the fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and their structure was further investigated with Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. The cyclic voltammetry experiments indicate that CNF-PtNP modified electrodes have high electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 and the chronoamperometry measurements illustrate that the fabricated biosensor has a high sensitivity for detecting H2O2. We anticipate that the strategies utilized in this work will not only guide the further design and fabrication of functional nanofiber-based biomaterials and nanodevices, but also extend the potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Paper-Based Sandwich Format Hybridization Assay for Unlabeled Nucleic Acid Detection Using Upconversion Nanoparticles as Energy Donors in Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1556-1570; doi:10.3390/nano5041556
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioassays based on cellulose paper substrates are gaining increasing popularity for the development of field portable and low-cost diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a paper-based nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as donors in luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). UCNPs
[...] Read more.
Bioassays based on cellulose paper substrates are gaining increasing popularity for the development of field portable and low-cost diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a paper-based nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as donors in luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). UCNPs with intense green emission served as donors with Cy3 dye as the acceptor. The avidin functionalized UCNPs were immobilized on cellulose paper and subsequently bioconjugated to biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. Introduction of unlabeled oligonucleotide targets resulted in a formation of probe-target duplexes. A subsequent hybridization of Cy3 labeled reporter with the remaining single stranded portion of target brought the Cy3 dye in close proximity to the UCNPs to trigger a LRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye. The hybridization assays provided a limit of detection (LOD) of 146.0 fmol and exhibited selectivity for one base pair mismatch discrimination. The assay was functional even in undiluted serum samples. This work embodies important progress in developing DNA hybridization assays on paper. Detection of unlabeled targets is achieved using UCNPs as LRET donors, with minimization of background signal from paper substrates owing to the implementation of low energy near-infrared (NIR) excitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1544-1555; doi:10.3390/nano5031544
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au
[...] Read more.
A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD)4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/nano6010005
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to
[...] Read more.
This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today’s society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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