Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ilaria Armentano

Materials Engineering Centre, UdR INSTM, NIPLAB, University of Perugia, 4 - 05100 Terni, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-744-492914
Fax: +39-744-492950
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luigi Torre

Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Perugia, UdR INSTM Strada di Pentima, 4 - 05100 Terni, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-744-492918
Fax: +39-744-492950
Interests: material science and technology; polymers technology; composite materials science and technology; nanostructured materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Josè Maria Kenny

Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Perugia, UdR INSTM Strada di Pentima, 4 - 05100 Terni, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-744-492939
Interests: material science and technology; polymers technology; composite materials science and technology; nanostructured materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue highlights the current state and future prospects of the new generation of multifunctional bio-nanomaterials, based on organic and inorganic nanostructures and different natural or synthetic biopolymers, for tissue engineering applications. The impact of nanotechnology has helped to improve the efficacy of available therapeutics with the possibility to control specific cell functions by modulating the material properties. Nanotechnology enables the development of new systems that mimic the complex, hierarchical structure of the native tissue. The confluence of nanotechnology and biology can address several biomedical problems, and can revolutionize the field of health and medicine.

The Special Issue is focused on nanomaterial synthesis, development, and characterization, with specific attention on the correlation between material properties and stem cell interaction. In particular contributions focused on polymeric nanocomposites, nanotopography, and nanoparticles will be mainly considered, promising an exciting future at the interface of chemistry, biology, and material science.

Dr. Ilaria Armentano
Prof. Dr. Luigi Torre
Prof. Dr. Josè Maria Kenny
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nanofibers
  • polymers
  • nanotopography
  • nanocomposites
  • scaffolds
  • stem cells
  • regenerative medicine
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Galactosylated Liposomes for Targeted Co-Delivery of Doxorubicin/Vimentin siRNA to Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(8), 141; doi:10.3390/nano6080141
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The combination of therapeutic nucleic acids and chemotherapeutic drugs has shown great promise for cancer therapy. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) targeting-ligand-based liposomes were tested to determine whether they can co-deliver vimentin siRNA and doxorubicin to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selectively. To achieve
[...] Read more.
The combination of therapeutic nucleic acids and chemotherapeutic drugs has shown great promise for cancer therapy. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) targeting-ligand-based liposomes were tested to determine whether they can co-deliver vimentin siRNA and doxorubicin to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selectively. To achieve this goal, we developed an ASGPR receptor targeted co-delivery system called gal-doxorubicin/vimentin siRNA liposome (Gal-DOX/siRNA-L). The Gal-DOX/siRNA-L was created via electrostatic interaction of galactose linked-cationic liposomal doxorubicin (Gal-DOX-L) on vimentin siRNA. Previous studies have shown that Gal-DOX/siRNA-L inhibited tumor growth by combined effect of DOX and vimentin siRNA than single delivery of either DOX or vimentin siRNA. These Gal-DOX/siRNA-Ls showed stronger affinity to human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh7) than other cells (lung epithelial carcinoma, A549). These liposomes also have demonstrated that novel hepatic drug/gene delivery systems composed of cationic lipid (DMKE: O,O’-dimyristyl-N-lysyl glutamate), cholesterol, galactosylated ceramide, POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and PEG2000-DSPE (distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine) at 2:1:1:1:0.2 (moral ratios) can be used as an effective drug/gene carrier specifically targeting the liver in vivo. These results suggest that Gal-DOX-siRNA-L could effectively target tumor cells, enhance transfection efficacy and subsequently achieve the co-delivery of DOX and siRNA, demonstrating great potential for synergistic anti-tumor therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructured TiO2 Surfaces Promote Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation to Osteoblasts
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(7), 124; doi:10.3390/nano6070124
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 24 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro- and nano-patterning/modification are emerging strategies to improve surfaces properties that may influence critically cells adherence and differentiation. Aim of this work was to study the in vitro biological reactivity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to a nanostructured titanium dioxide
[...] Read more.
Micro- and nano-patterning/modification are emerging strategies to improve surfaces properties that may influence critically cells adherence and differentiation. Aim of this work was to study the in vitro biological reactivity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to a nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface in comparison to a coverglass (Glass) in two different culture conditions: with (osteogenic medium (OM)) and without (proliferative medium (PM)) osteogenic factors. To evaluate cell adhesion, hBMSCs phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) foci were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 24 h: the TiO2 surface showed a higher number of pFAK foci with respect to Glass. The hBMSCs differentiation to osteoblasts was evaluated in both PM and OM culture conditions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), CLSM and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) at 28 days. In comparison with Glass, TiO2 surface in combination with OM conditions increased the content of extracellular bone proteins, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed, both in PM and OM, that TiO2 surface increased at seven and 28 days the expression of osteogenic genes. All together, these results demonstrate the capability of TiO2 nanostructured surface to promote hBMSCs osteoblast differentiation and its potentiality in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Modified Silica Nanomaterials on Adult Stem Cell Culture
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 104; doi:10.3390/nano6060104
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 4 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The preparation of tailored nanomaterials able to support cell growth and viability is mandatory for tissue engineering applications. In the present work, silica nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel procedure and were then functionalized by condensation of amino groups and by adsorption of
[...] Read more.
The preparation of tailored nanomaterials able to support cell growth and viability is mandatory for tissue engineering applications. In the present work, silica nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel procedure and were then functionalized by condensation of amino groups and by adsorption of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging was used to establish the morphology and the average dimensions of about 130 nm, which were not affected by the functionalization. The three silica samples were deposited (1 mg/mL) on cover glasses, which were used as a substrate to culture adult human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The good cell viability over the different silica surfaces was evaluated by monitoring the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. The analysis of the morphological parameters (aspect ratio, cell length, and nuclear shape Index) yielded information about the interactions of stem cells with the surface of three different nanoparticles. The data are discussed in terms of chemical properties of the surface of silica nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Rapamycin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a New Tool to Deliver mTOR Inhibitors: Formulation and in Vitro Characterization
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(5), 87; doi:10.3390/nano6050087
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, the use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, in particular rapamycin (Rp), has been suggested to improve the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, as Rp is a strong immunosuppressant, specific delivery to the brain has been postulated to avoid systemic exposure.
[...] Read more.
Recently, the use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, in particular rapamycin (Rp), has been suggested to improve the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, as Rp is a strong immunosuppressant, specific delivery to the brain has been postulated to avoid systemic exposure. In this work, we fabricated new Rp loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Rp-SLN) stabilized with polysorbate 80 (PS80), comparing two different methods and lipids. The formulations were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and particle tracking. In vitro release and short-term stability were assessed. Biological behavior of Rp-SLN was tested in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) was evaluated over time by a pulse-chase study compared to free Rp and Rp nanocrystals. Compritol Rp-SLN resulted more stable and possessing proper size and surface properties with respect to cetyl palmitate Rp-SLN. Rapamycin was entrapped in an amorphous form in the solid lipid matrix that showed partial crystallinity with stable Lβ, sub-Lα and Lβ′ arrangements. PS80 was stably anchored on particle surface. No drug release was observed over 24 h and Rp-SLN had a higher cell uptake and a more sustained effect over a week. The mTORC1 inhibition was higher with Rp-SLN. Overall, compritol Rp-SLN show suitable characteristics and stability to be considered for further investigation as Rp brain delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone) Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 75; doi:10.3390/nano6040075
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of
[...] Read more.
The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition) particles in the polymeric solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Ex-Vivo Tissues Engineering Modeling for Reconstructive Surgery Using Human Adult Adipose Stem Cells and Polymeric Nanostructured Matrix
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/nano6040057
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected
[...] Read more.
The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected stem cell type, based on their capability to differentiate toward committed cell lineages, and a biomaterial, that, due to own characteristics (e.g., chemical, electric, mechanical property, nano-topography, and nanostructured molecular components), could serve as active scaffold to generate a bio-hybrid tissue/organ. Thus, effort has been made on the generation of in vitro tissue engineering modeling. Here, we present an in vitro model where human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate adipose tissue and breast adipose tissue, cultured on polymeric INTEGRA® Meshed Bilayer Wound Matrix (selected based on conventional clinical applications) are evaluated for their potential application for reconstructive surgery toward bone and adipose tissue. We demonstrated that human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate and breast tissue have similar stemness properties and are suitable for tissue engineering applications. Finally, the overall results highlighted lipoaspirate adipose tissue as a good source for the generation of adult adipose stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Interfacial Drug Delivery System with Controlled Loading and Improved Release Performance for Bone Therapeutics
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 53; doi:10.3390/nano6030053
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS) based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine) (PLL) was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS) of low and high degree
[...] Read more.
An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS) based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine) (PLL) was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS) of low and high degree of substitution, so that the CS and PLL solution have around equal molar charged units. As drugs the antibiotic rifampicin (RIF) and the bisphosphonate risedronate (RIS) were integrated. As an important advantage over previous PEC systems this one can be centrifuged, the supernatant discarded, the dense pellet phase (coacervate) separated, and again redispersed in fresh water phase. This behavior has three benefits: (i) Access to the loading capacity of the drug, since the concentration of the free drug can be measured by spectroscopy; (ii) lower initial burst and higher residual amount of drug due to removal of unbound drug and (iii) complete adhesive stability due to the removal of polyelectrolytes (PEL) excess component. It was found that the pH value and ionic strength strongly affected drug content and release of RIS and RIF. At the clinically relevant implant material (Ti40Nb) similar PEC adhesive and drug release properties compared to the model substrate were found. Unloaded PEC coatings at Ti40Nb showed a similar number and morphology of above cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) compared to uncoated Ti40Nb and resulted in considerable production of bone mineral. RIS loaded PEC coatings showed similar effects after 24 h but resulted in reduced number and unhealthy appearance of hMSC after 48 h due to cell toxicity of RIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering In Dentistry
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(7), 134; doi:10.3390/nano6070134
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This
[...] Read more.
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues. Some scaffoldless techniques used in TE are also presented. Then actual and future roles of nanotechnologies about TE in dentistry are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(7), 133; doi:10.3390/nano6070133
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During
[...] Read more.
Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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