Special Issue "Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mikael S. Hedenqvist

Polymeric Materials, Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +46-8-790-7645
Fax: ±46-8-208856
Interests: polymer-based nanocomposites; biocomposites; transport properties; biobased-polymers; foams; protein plastics; degradation and stability of polymers; packaging materials; modeling/simulation of polymers.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As can be seen from the number of publications and patents, the importance of nanocomposites has continuously increased since late 1980s. Within the field of nanocomposites, the area of most intense research and development, by far, is the one where polymers are used as matrices.

Nanocomposites have been developed to improve a number of properties of the matrix polymer, including thermal stability and strength. Nanocomposites have also been developed to add additional properties/features to the matrix polymer, including magnetic features.

A broad range of polymers, ranging from glassy thermosets to elastomers, have been considered together with nanoadditives, including clays and graphene (sheets), carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers (elongated fillers), metal oxides (particulate fillers).

The range in target areas and applications for nanocomposites developed to date is very broad, including membranes (air/water treatment), construction (cements), catalysis, cosmetics, propellants, enzymes, detergents, dyes, fertilizers, packaging, batteries, food/feed, sensors, capacitors, solar cells, pipes/tubes, tires, nonwovens and paints.

In this Special Issue, the focus is on polymer-based nanocomposites which possess multifunctionality. The multifunctionality can be obtained from the additives themself or when the matrix polymer and the additives are combined. We welcome papers (original research or reviews) from all disciplines where polymer-based nanocomposites are of interest.

Prof. Mikael S. Hedenqvist
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanocomposite
  • nanomaterial
  • functional
  • polymer
  • additive
  • filler

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 66; doi:10.3390/nano7030066
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs). We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can
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Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs). We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic—with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/nano7020023
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP)
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The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle On the Use of the Electrospinning Coating Technique to Produce Antimicrobial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Materials Containing In Situ-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/nano7010004
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
PDF Full-text (3593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electro-hydrodynamic processing, comprising electrospraying and electrospinning techniques, has emerged as a versatile technology to produce nanostructured fiber-based and particle-based materials. In this work, an antimicrobial active multilayer system comprising a commercial polyhydroxyalkanoate substrate (PHA) and an electrospun PHA coating containing in situ-stabilized silver
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Electro-hydrodynamic processing, comprising electrospraying and electrospinning techniques, has emerged as a versatile technology to produce nanostructured fiber-based and particle-based materials. In this work, an antimicrobial active multilayer system comprising a commercial polyhydroxyalkanoate substrate (PHA) and an electrospun PHA coating containing in situ-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was successfully developed and characterized in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties. The obtained materials reduced the bacterial population of Salmonella enterica below the detection limits at very low silver loading of 0.002 ± 0.0005 wt %. As a result, this study provides an innovative route to generate fully renewable and biodegradable materials that could prevent microbial outbreaks in food packages and food contact surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 244; doi:10.3390/nano6120244
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO) were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB), respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different
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In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO) were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB), respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ) and as a function of different relative humidity (RH) values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1) value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1) was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films). Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03). The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle A Targeted Nanoprobe Based on Carbon Nanotubes-Natural Biopolymer Chitosan Composites
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 216; doi:10.3390/nano6110216
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a
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A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a using a water-soluble carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Chitosan was fluorescently labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate via the covalently linkage of the isothiocyanate group with the amino group. Second, SWCNTs were sonicated in the functional chitosan aqueous solution for 6 h at room temperature in order to obtain the nanoprobe (PPa/FITC-SWCNT-FA). The as-prepared nanoprobe has been characterized with transmission electron microscope, confocal microscopy, and cell cytotoxicity tests. Chitosan was decorated onto SWCNTs resulting in the water-dispersible PPa/FITC-SWCNT-FA, and can be selectively transported inside folate receptor-positive tumor cell with good targeting imaging. PPa/FITC-SWCNT-FA exhibited low dark toxicity about 7%–13%, and high phototoxicity about 60%–74% against HeLa cells upon a 635 nm laser irradiation, indicating satisfying biocompatibility and antitumor activity. These results suggest the study could offer a feasible alternative to presently available nanoparticle-based theranostic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(10), 188; doi:10.3390/nano6100188
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing
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This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 102; doi:10.3390/nano6060102
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized
[...] Read more.
This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 67; doi:10.3390/nano6040067
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated
[...] Read more.
The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Investigating Polymer–Metal Interfaces by Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Gradients to Real-Time Studies
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 239; doi:10.3390/nano6120239
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tailoring the polymer–metal interface is crucial for advanced material design. Vacuum deposition methods for metal layer coating are widely used in industry and research. They allow for installing a variety of nanostructures, often making use of the selective interaction of the metal atoms
[...] Read more.
Tailoring the polymer–metal interface is crucial for advanced material design. Vacuum deposition methods for metal layer coating are widely used in industry and research. They allow for installing a variety of nanostructures, often making use of the selective interaction of the metal atoms with the underlying polymer thin film. The polymer thin film may eventually be nanostructured, too, in order to create a hierarchy in length scales. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering is an advanced method to characterize and investigate polymer–metal interfaces. Being non-destructive and yielding statistically relevant results, it allows for deducing the detailed polymer–metal interaction. We review the use of grazing incidence X-ray scattering to elucidate the polymer–metal interface, making use of the modern synchrotron radiation facilities, allowing for very local studies via in situ (so-called “stop-sputter”) experiments as well as studies observing the nanostructured metal nanoparticle layer growth in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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