Special Issue "Nanoparticles in Bioimaging"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yurii K. Gun'ko

School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: quantum dots; magnetic nanomaterials; carbon nanomaterials; nano-bio-technology; biological imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology and new nanomaterials have an enormous impact to the modern science, technology, and everyday life. One of the important potential applications of nanoparticles is their use as contrast agents for in vitro and in vivo biological imaging. Nanoparticles can offer have a number of advantages over existing contrast agents, including tunable physical (e.g. optical and magnetic) properties, high stability (e.g. against photobleaching), possibility of targeted delivery, and specific binding via chemical functionalisation, multimodality (ability to combine several functions in one particle), high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, nanoparticle based contrast agents are very promising tools for a range of bioimaging techniques such as optical and confocal microscopy, NIR imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission CT (SPECT) and ultrasound imaging. However, there are some challenges and roadblocks, such as potential nanotoxicity and biocompatiblity issues, which must be addressed before nanomaterials will find widespread applications in vivo biological imaging.

This Special Issue is focused on the synthesis, properties, and potential bioimaging applications of various nanomaterials, including quantum dots, plasmonic, magnetic, and various multimodal (for example, fluorescent-magnetic) nanoparticles.

Prof. Dr. Yurii K. Gun'ko
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioimagine
  • non-invasive imaging
  • fluorescence
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • quantum dots
  • multimodal nanoparticles
  • confocal microscopy
  • PET
  • nanomedicine
  • medical diagnostic

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nanoparticles in Bioimaging
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 105; doi:10.3390/nano6060105
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue of Nanomaterials is dedicated to the application of nanoparticulate materials in biological imaging.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Noise Removal with Maintained Spatial Resolution in Raman Images of Cells Exposed to Submicron Polystyrene Particles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(5), 83; doi:10.3390/nano6050083
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman
[...] Read more.
The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage. In this study we use a super-resolution algorithm with Tikhonov regularization, intended to improve the image quality without demanding an increased number of collected pixels. Images of cells exposed to polystyrene particles have been acquired with two different step lengths, i.e., the distance between pixels, and compared to each other and to corresponding images treated with the super-resolution algorithm. It is shown that the resolution after application of super-resolution algorithms is not significantly improved compared to the theoretical limit for optical microscopy. However, to reduce noise and artefacts in the hyperspectral Raman images while maintaining the spatial resolution, we show that it is advantageous to use short mapping step lengths and super-resolution algorithms with appropriate regularization. The proposed methodology should be generally applicable for Raman imaging of biological samples and other photo-sensitive samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Echographic Detection of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes in a Low Concentration Range
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 66; doi:10.3390/nano6040066
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding “raw” radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a
[...] Read more.
Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding “raw” radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a low range (5.5–66 × 1010 part/mL, equivalent to 0.25–3.00 mg/mL) were dispersed in custom-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms and imaged through a clinically-available echographic device at a conventional ultrasound diagnostic frequency (10 MHz). The most effective response (sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 95%), was found at a concentration of 33 × 1010 part/mL (1.5 mg/mL), representing a kind of best compromise between the need of enough particles to introduce detectable spectral modifications in the backscattered signal and the necessity to avoid the losses of spectral peculiarity associated to higher HNT concentrations. Based on theoretical considerations and quantitative comparisons with literature-available results, this concentration could also represent an optimal concentration level for the automatic echographic detection of different solid nanoparticles when employing a similar ultrasound frequency. Future dedicated studies will assess the actual clinical usefulness of the proposed approach and the potential of HNTs for effective theranostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of Gd-Functionalized Gold Nanoclusters as Potential MRI/CT Contrast Agents
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 65; doi:10.3390/nano6040065
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multi-modal imaging plays a key role in the earlier detection of disease. In this work, a facile bioinspired method was developed to synthesize Gd-functionalized gold nanoclusters (Gd-Au NCs). The Gd-Au NCs exhibit a uniform size, with an average size of 5.6 nm in
[...] Read more.
Multi-modal imaging plays a key role in the earlier detection of disease. In this work, a facile bioinspired method was developed to synthesize Gd-functionalized gold nanoclusters (Gd-Au NCs). The Gd-Au NCs exhibit a uniform size, with an average size of 5.6 nm in dynamic light scattering (DLS), which is a bit bigger than gold clusters (3.74 nm, DLS), while the fluorescent properties of Gd-Au NCs are almost the same as that of Au NCs. Moreover, the Gd-Au NCs exhibit a high longitudinal relaxivity value (r1) of 22.111 s−1 per mM of Gd in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), which is six times higher than that of commercial Magnevist (A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid, Gd-DTPA, r1 = 3.56 mM−1·s−1). Besides, as evaluated by nano single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) the Gd-Au NCs have a potential application as CT contrast agents because of the Au element. Finally, the Gd-Au NCs show little cytotoxicity, even when the Au concentration is up to 250 μM. Thus, the Gd-Au NCs can act as multi-modal imaging contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessCommunication Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 56; doi:10.3390/nano6040056
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to
[...] Read more.
The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Nickel Nanowires with Tunable Characteristics
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 19; doi:10.3390/nano6010019
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A one-step synthesis of magnetic nickel nanowires (NiNWs) with tunable characteristics is reported. The method is simple and easy to be conducted, leading to high compatibility with scaling-up. It is discovered that the size and morphology of NiNWs can be adjusted by tuning
[...] Read more.
A one-step synthesis of magnetic nickel nanowires (NiNWs) with tunable characteristics is reported. The method is simple and easy to be conducted, leading to high compatibility with scaling-up. It is discovered that the size and morphology of NiNWs can be adjusted by tuning the reaction temperature, time length, as well as surfactant concentration. It is found that the products have shown high purity which remained after being stored for several months. A remarkable enhanced saturation magnetization of the product was also observed, compared to that of bulk nickel. By providing both practical experimental details and in-depth mechanism, the work introduced in this paper may advance the mass production and further applications of NiNWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Dye-Doped Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Live Cell and In Vivo Bioimaging
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(5), 81; doi:10.3390/nano6050081
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The need for novel design strategies for fluorescent nanomaterials to improve our understanding of biological activities at the molecular level is increasing rapidly. Dye-doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) emerge with great potential for developing fluorescence imaging techniques as a novel and ideal platform
[...] Read more.
The need for novel design strategies for fluorescent nanomaterials to improve our understanding of biological activities at the molecular level is increasing rapidly. Dye-doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) emerge with great potential for developing fluorescence imaging techniques as a novel and ideal platform for the monitoring of living cells and the whole body. Organic dye-containing fluorescent SiNPs exhibit many advantages: they have excellent biocompatibility, are non-toxic, highly hydrophilic, optically transparent, size-tunable and easily modified with various biomolecules. The outer silica shell matrix protects fluorophores from outside chemical reaction factors and provides a hydrophilic shell for the insoluble nanoparticles, which enhances the photo-stability and biocompatibility of the organic fluorescent dyes. Here, we give a summary of the synthesis, characteristics and applications of fluorescent SiNPs for non-invasive fluorescence bioimaging in live cells and in vivo. Additionally, the challenges and perspectives of SiNPs are also discussed. We prospect that the further development of these nanoparticles will lead to an exciting breakthrough in the understanding of biological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessReview Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles: Recent Progress in Thermal Therapy and Imaging
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 76; doi:10.3390/nano6040076
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided
[...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles. The main heating sources for heat-induced therapies are the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the near infrared region and alternating magnetic fields (AMFs). The different families of inorganic nanoparticles employed for SPR- and AMF-based thermal therapies and imaging are described. Furthermore, inorganic nanomaterials developed for multimodal therapies with different and multi-imaging modalities are presented in detail. Finally, relevant clinical perspectives and the future scope of inorganic nanoparticles in image-guided therapies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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Open AccessReview Upconverting NIR Photons for Bioimaging
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2148-2168; doi:10.3390/nano5042148
Received: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) possess uniqueanti-Stokes optical properties, in which low energy near-infrared (NIR) photons can beconverted into high energy UV, visible, shorter NIR emission via multiphoton upconversionprocesses. Due to the rapid development of synthesis chemistry, lanthanide-doped UCNPscan be fabricated with narrow distribution
[...] Read more.
Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) possess uniqueanti-Stokes optical properties, in which low energy near-infrared (NIR) photons can beconverted into high energy UV, visible, shorter NIR emission via multiphoton upconversionprocesses. Due to the rapid development of synthesis chemistry, lanthanide-doped UCNPscan be fabricated with narrow distribution and tunable multi-color optical properties. Theseunique attributes grant them unique NIR-driven imaging/drug delivery/therapeuticapplications, especially in the cases of deep tissue environments. In this brief review, weintroduce both the basic concepts of and recent progress with UCNPs in material engineeringand theranostic applications in imaging, molecular delivery, and tumor therapeutics. The aimof this brief review is to address the most typical progress in basic mechanism, materialdesign as bioimaging tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Bioimaging)
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