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Nanomaterials, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2016)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 35; doi:10.3390/nano6030035
Received: 19 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC) constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance
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Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC) constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Solar Cells) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Welding of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon and Silica Surface by Laser Irradiation
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 36; doi:10.3390/nano6030036
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a continuous fiber laser (1064 nm wavelength, 30 W/cm2) is used to irradiate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on different substrate surfaces. Effects of substrates on nano-welding of MWCNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). For MWCNTs on
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In this study, a continuous fiber laser (1064 nm wavelength, 30 W/cm2) is used to irradiate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on different substrate surfaces. Effects of substrates on nano-welding of MWCNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). For MWCNTs on silica, after 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C–C bonds and formation of new graphene layers. While welding junctions can be formed until 10 s for the MWCNTs on silicon, the difference of irradiation time to achieve welding is attributed to the difference of thermal conductivity for silica and silicon. As the irradiation time is prolonged up to 12.5 s, most of the MWCNTs are welded to a silicon substrate, which leads to their frameworks of tube walls on the silicon surface. This is because the accumulation of absorbed energy makes the temperature rise. Then chemical reactions among silicon, carbon and nitrogen occur. New chemical bonds of Si–N and Si–C achieve the welding between the MWCNTs and silicon. Vibration modes of Si3N4 appear at peaks of 363 cm−1 and 663 cm−1. There are vibration modes of SiC at peaks of 618 cm−1, 779 cm−1 and 973 cm−1. The experimental observation proves chemical reactions and the formation of Si3N4 and SiC by laser irradiation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Supramolecular Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes: Application to the Catalytic Oxidation of Hydroxylamines
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 37; doi:10.3390/nano6030037
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A supramolecular heterogeneous catalyst was developed by assembly and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes. A layer-by-layer assembly strategy was used and the resulting nanohybrid was involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydroxylamines under mild conditions. The nanohybrid demonstrated
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A supramolecular heterogeneous catalyst was developed by assembly and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes. A layer-by-layer assembly strategy was used and the resulting nanohybrid was involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydroxylamines under mild conditions. The nanohybrid demonstrated high efficiency and selectivity on hydroxylamine substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 38; doi:10.3390/nano6030038
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
PDF Full-text (5144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas
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Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Developments of the Physical and Electrical Properties of NiCr and NiCrSi Single-Layer and Bi-Layer Nano-Scale Thin-Film Resistors
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 39; doi:10.3390/nano6030039
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, commercial-grade NiCr (80 wt % Ni, 20 wt % Cr) and NiCrSi (55 wt % Ni, 40 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Si) were used as targets and the sputtering method was used to deposit NiCr and NiCrSi thin
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In this study, commercial-grade NiCr (80 wt % Ni, 20 wt % Cr) and NiCrSi (55 wt % Ni, 40 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Si) were used as targets and the sputtering method was used to deposit NiCr and NiCrSi thin films on Al2O3 and Si substrates at room temperature under different deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films were amorphous phase, and the field-effect scanning electronic microscope observations showed that only nano-crystalline grains were revealed on the surfaces of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films. The log (resistivity) values of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased approximately linearly as their thicknesses increased. We found that the value of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR value) of the NiCr thin-film resistors was positive and that of the NiCrSi thin-film resistors was negative. To investigate these thin-film resistors with a low TCR value, we designed a novel bi-layer structure to fabricate the thin-film resistors via two different stacking methods. The bi-layer structures were created by depositing NiCr for 10 min as the upper (or lower) layer and depositing NiCrSi for 10, 30, or 60 min as the lower (or upper) layer. We aim to show that the stacking method had no apparent effect on the resistivity of the NiCr-NiCrSi bi-layer thin-film resistors but had large effect on the TCR value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessCommunication N-doped TiO2 Nanotubes as an Effective Additive to Improve the Catalytic Capability of Methanol Oxidation for Pt/Graphene Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/nano6030040
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N-doped TiO2 nanotubes have been prepared as additives to improve the catalytic capability of Pt/graphene composites in methanol oxidation reactions. Electrochemical experiments show that the catalytic performance of Pt/graphene composites has been greatly improved by the introduction of N-doped TiO2 nanotubes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Assisted Synthesis of Ag2O Nanomaterials and Ag2O/RuO2 Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/nano6030042
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silver oxide, ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and its composites are widely used in a variety of applications. Plasma-mediated synthesis is one of the emerging technologies to prepare nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to synthesize
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Silver oxide, ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and its composites are widely used in a variety of applications. Plasma-mediated synthesis is one of the emerging technologies to prepare nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to synthesize Ag2O and Ag2O/RuO2 nanocomposite materials. The prepared materials showed good crystallinity. The surface morphology of the Ag2O exhibited “garland-like” features, and it changed to “flower-like” and “leaf-like” at different NaOH concentrations. The Ag2O/RuO2 composite showed mixed structures of aggregated Ag2O and sheet-like RuO2. Mechanisms governing the material’s growth under atmospheric pressure plasma were proposed. Chemical analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the thermal decomposition behavior and the oxygen release pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/nano6030043
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon.
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A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/nano6030044
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor) were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA) to
[...] Read more.
Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor) were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA) to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA) film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor) film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA) hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n) of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles within the Cages of MIL-101: A Mild and Recyclable Hydrogenation Catalyst
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/nano6030045
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We present the in situ synthesis of Pt nanoparticles within MIL-101-Cr (MIL = Materials Institute Lavoisier) by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD). The obtained Pt@MIL-101 materials were characterized by means of N2 adsorption and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) measurements, showing that
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We present the in situ synthesis of Pt nanoparticles within MIL-101-Cr (MIL = Materials Institute Lavoisier) by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD). The obtained Pt@MIL-101 materials were characterized by means of N2 adsorption and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) measurements, showing that the structure of the metal organic framework was well preserved during the ALD deposition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed the deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with sizes determined by the MIL-101-Cr pore sizes and with an increased Pt loading for an increasing number of ALD cycles. The Pt@MIL-101 material was examined as catalyst in the hydrogenation of different linear and cyclic olefins at room temperature, showing full conversion for each substrate. Moreover, even under solvent free conditions, full conversion of the substrate was observed. A high concentration test has been performed showing that the Pt@MIL-101 is stable for a long reaction time without loss of activity, crystallinity and with very low Pt leaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Formation and Controlled Drug Release Using a Three-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel for Anti-Schistosoma Japonicum Cercariae
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 46; doi:10.3390/nano6030046
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel three-component supramolecular hydrogel based on riboflavin, melamine and amino acid derivatives were constructed for controlled release of pesticides, Niclosamide derivatives. The formation of hydrogel may be attributed to self-assemble via hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction, which have been researched via scanning
[...] Read more.
A novel three-component supramolecular hydrogel based on riboflavin, melamine and amino acid derivatives were constructed for controlled release of pesticides, Niclosamide derivatives. The formation of hydrogel may be attributed to self-assemble via hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction, which have been researched via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The rheological experiments showed that the hydrogel materials and drug-loaded hydrogel all demonstrated good mechanical strength and high stability. Further experimental results indicated that the drug-loaded hydrogels show large drug loadings, long-term release time and relatively higher efficiency to anti-cercariae in the water environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Colloidal Gold-Mediated Delivery of Bleomycin for Improved Outcome in Chemotherapy
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 48; doi:10.3390/nano6030048
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
PDF Full-text (3611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to overcome the side effects of poor distribution of anticancer drugs. Among other NPs, colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs) offer the possibility of transporting major quantities of drugs due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. This is while confining these
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Nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to overcome the side effects of poor distribution of anticancer drugs. Among other NPs, colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs) offer the possibility of transporting major quantities of drugs due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. This is while confining these anticancer drugs as closely as possible to their biological targets through passive and active targeting, thus ensuring limited harmful systemic distribution. In this study, we chose to use bleomycin (BLM) as the anticancer drug due to its limited therapeutic efficiency (harmful side effects). BLM was conjugated onto GNPs through a thiol bond. The effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic drug, BLM, is observed by visualizing DNA double strand breaks and by calculating the survival fraction. The action of the drug (where the drug takes effect) is known to be in the nucleus, and our experiments have shown that some of the GNPs carrying BLM were present in the nucleus. The use of GNPs to deliver BLM increased the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Having a better control over delivery of anticancer drugs using GNPs will establish a more successful NP-based platform for a combined therapeutic approach. This is due to the fact that GNPs can also be used as radiation dose enhancers in cancer research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Colloidal Nanocrystals)
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Open AccessArticle Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 49; doi:10.3390/nano6030049
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final
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Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final wastewater samples (CWs and FWs, respectively) collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed lower toxicity of pristine Ag NPs in CWs than in FWs. The effect of the matrix on the eventual Ag NP toxicity was related to multiple physico-chemical parameters (biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) pH, ammonia, sulfide and chloride) based on a multivariate analysis. However, no collection site effect was concluded. Aged Ag NPs (up to eight weeks) were found less toxic than pristine Ag NPs in CWs; evident increased aggregation and decreased dissolution were associated with aging. However, Ag NPs exhibited consistent toxicity in FWs despite aging; comparable results were obtained in artificial wastewater (AW) simulating effluent. The study demonstrates the potency of performing nanoparticle acute toxicity testing in real and complex matrices such as wastewaters using relevant bacterial bioreporters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoparticles Composed of Zn and ZnO Inhibit Peronospora tabacina Spore Germination in vitro and P. tabacina Infectivity on Tobacco Leaves
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 50; doi:10.3390/nano6030050
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used for commercial purposes and certain NP types have been shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity. In contrast, their activities against fungi and fungi-like oomycetes are less studied. Here, we examined the potential of two types
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Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used for commercial purposes and certain NP types have been shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity. In contrast, their activities against fungi and fungi-like oomycetes are less studied. Here, we examined the potential of two types of commercially available Zn NPs (Zn NPs and ZnO NPs) to inhibit spore germination and infectivity on tobacco leaves resulting from exposure to the fungi-like oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina (P. tabacina). Both types of NPs, as well as ZnCl2 and bulk ZnO control treatments, inhibited spore germination compared to a blank control. ZnO ENMs were shown to be a much more powerful suppressor of spore germination and infectivity than bulk ZnO. ZnO and Zn NPs significantly inhibited leaf infection at 8 and 10 mg·L−1, respectively. Both types of NPs were found to provide substantially higher concentration dependent inhibition of spore germination and infectivity than could be readily explained by the presence of dissolved Zn. These results suggest that both NP types have potential for use as economic, low-dose, potentially non-persistent anti-microbial agents against the oomycete P. tabacina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanotube Diameter and Wall Number in Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 52; doi:10.3390/nano6030052
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of
[...] Read more.
Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in this study yielded cells with higher open circuit voltages. It was also determined that post fabrication treatments applied to the nanotube films have a lesser effect on multi-walled nanotubes than on the other two types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Solar Cells) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Interfacial Drug Delivery System with Controlled Loading and Improved Release Performance for Bone Therapeutics
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 53; doi:10.3390/nano6030053
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS) based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine) (PLL) was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS) of low and high degree
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An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS) based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine) (PLL) was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS) of low and high degree of substitution, so that the CS and PLL solution have around equal molar charged units. As drugs the antibiotic rifampicin (RIF) and the bisphosphonate risedronate (RIS) were integrated. As an important advantage over previous PEC systems this one can be centrifuged, the supernatant discarded, the dense pellet phase (coacervate) separated, and again redispersed in fresh water phase. This behavior has three benefits: (i) Access to the loading capacity of the drug, since the concentration of the free drug can be measured by spectroscopy; (ii) lower initial burst and higher residual amount of drug due to removal of unbound drug and (iii) complete adhesive stability due to the removal of polyelectrolytes (PEL) excess component. It was found that the pH value and ionic strength strongly affected drug content and release of RIS and RIF. At the clinically relevant implant material (Ti40Nb) similar PEC adhesive and drug release properties compared to the model substrate were found. Unloaded PEC coatings at Ti40Nb showed a similar number and morphology of above cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) compared to uncoated Ti40Nb and resulted in considerable production of bone mineral. RIS loaded PEC coatings showed similar effects after 24 h but resulted in reduced number and unhealthy appearance of hMSC after 48 h due to cell toxicity of RIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Reduction of Nitroarenes into Aryl Amines and N-Aryl hydroxylamines via Activation of NaBH4 and Ammonia-Borane Complexes by Ag/TiO2 Catalyst
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 54; doi:10.3390/nano6030054
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we report the fabrication of mesoporous assemblies of silver and TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag/MTA) and demonstrate their catalytic efficiency for the selective reduction of nitroarenes. The Ag/TiO2 assemblies, which show large surface areas (119–128 m2·g−1)
[...] Read more.
In this study, we report the fabrication of mesoporous assemblies of silver and TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag/MTA) and demonstrate their catalytic efficiency for the selective reduction of nitroarenes. The Ag/TiO2 assemblies, which show large surface areas (119–128 m2·g−1) and narrow-sized mesopores (ca. 7.1–7.4 nm), perform as highly active catalysts for the reduction of nitroarenes, giving the corresponding aryl amines and N-aryl hydroxylamines with NaBH4 and ammonia-borane (NH3BH3), respectively, in moderate to high yields, even in large scale reactions (up to 5 mmol). Kinetic studies indicate that nitroarenes substituted with electron-withdrawing groups reduced faster than those with electron-donating groups. The measured positive ρ values from the formal Hammett-type kinetic analysis of X-substituted nitroarenes are consistent with the proposed mechanism that include the formation of possible [Ag]-H hybrid species, which are responsible for the reduction process. Because of the high observed chemo selectivities and the clean reaction processes, the present catalytic systems, i.e., Ag/MTA-NaBH4 and Ag/MTA-NH3BH3, show promise for the efficient synthesis of aryl amines and N-aryl hydroxylamines at industrial levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Brief Review on Multivalent Intercalation Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 41; doi:10.3390/nano6030041
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapidly growing global demand for high energy density rechargeable batteries has driven the research toward developing new chemistries and battery systems beyond Li-ion batteries. Due to the advantages of delivering more than one electron and giving more charge capacity, the multivalent systems have
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Rapidly growing global demand for high energy density rechargeable batteries has driven the research toward developing new chemistries and battery systems beyond Li-ion batteries. Due to the advantages of delivering more than one electron and giving more charge capacity, the multivalent systems have gained considerable attention. At the same time, affordability, ease of fabrication and safety aspects have also directed researchers to focus on aqueous electrolyte based multivalent intercalation batteries. There have been a decent number of publications disclosing capabilities and challenges of several multivalent battery systems in aqueous electrolytes, and while considering an increasing interest in this area, here, we present a brief overview of their recent progress, including electrode chemistries, functionalities and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond)
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Open AccessReview Copper Nanowires and Their Applications for Flexible, Transparent Conducting Films: A Review
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 47; doi:10.3390/nano6030047
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cu nanowires (NWs) are attracting considerable attention as alternatives to Ag NWs for next-generation transparent conductors, replacing indium tin oxide (ITO) and micro metal grids. Cu NWs hold great promise for low-cost fabrication via a solution-processed route and show preponderant optical, electrical, and
[...] Read more.
Cu nanowires (NWs) are attracting considerable attention as alternatives to Ag NWs for next-generation transparent conductors, replacing indium tin oxide (ITO) and micro metal grids. Cu NWs hold great promise for low-cost fabrication via a solution-processed route and show preponderant optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. In this study, we report a summary of recent advances in research on Cu NWs, covering the optoelectronic properties, synthesis routes, deposition methods to fabricate flexible transparent conducting films, and their potential applications. This review also examines the approaches on protecting Cu NWs from oxidation in air environments. Full article
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Open AccessReview Porphyrin-Based Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 51; doi:10.3390/nano6030051
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
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Abstract
Well-defined organic nanostructures with controllable size and morphology are increasingly exploited in optoelectronic devices. As promising building blocks, porphyrins have demonstrated great potentials in visible-light photocatalytic applications, because of their electrical, optical and catalytic properties. From this perspective, we have summarized the recent
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Well-defined organic nanostructures with controllable size and morphology are increasingly exploited in optoelectronic devices. As promising building blocks, porphyrins have demonstrated great potentials in visible-light photocatalytic applications, because of their electrical, optical and catalytic properties. From this perspective, we have summarized the recent significant advances on the design and photocatalytic applications of porphyrin-based nanostructures. The rational strategies, such as texture or crystal modification and interfacial heterostructuring, are described. The applications of the porphyrin-based nanostructures in photocatalytic pollutant degradation and hydrogen evolution are presented. Finally, the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of porphyrin nanostructures in high-quality nanodevices are also proposed. Full article
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