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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 68; doi:10.3390/nano6040068

Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato)

1
Commonwealth Science and Industry Research Organization (CSIRO) Land and Water, Waite Road, PMB 2, Urrbrae 5064, South Australia, Australia
2
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond 5064, South Australia, Australia
3
Center for the Environmental Implications for Nanotechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
4
Commonwealth Science and Industry Research Organization (CSIRO), Land and Water, Ecosciences Precinct, 41 Boggo Road, Dutton Park 4102, Queensland, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baoshan Xing
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1390 KB, uploaded 13 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5–10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components present in the soil might fundamentally alter the potential of plant bioaccumulation of ENMs is unclear. Here, we used two genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc), a mutant which does not allow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization, and its progenitor, 76R, to examine how colonization by AMF alters trends of gold ENM bioaccumulation from a natural soil. Gold was taken up and bioaccumulated by plants of both genotypes. Gold concentrations were significantly higher in the rmc treatment although this was likely attributable to the large differences in biomass between the 76R and rmc plants. Regardless, there was little evidence that AMF played a significant role in trafficking Au ENMs into the plants. Furthermore, despite very low NH4NO3 extractable Au concentrations, Au accumulated at the root-soil interface. Although this observation would seem to suggest that ENMs may have potential to influence this particularly biologically active and important soil compartment, we observed no evidence of this here, as the 76R plants developed a robust AMF symbiosis despite accumulation of Au ENMs at the rhizoplane. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotoxicology; nanotechnology; ecotoxicology; risk assessment nanotoxicology; nanotechnology; ecotoxicology; risk assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Judy, J.D.; Kirby, J.K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Cavagnaro, T.; Bertsch, P.M. Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato). Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 68.

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