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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 77; doi:10.3390/nano6040077

Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile

1
Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8204, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7614, USA
3
Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sheshanath V. Bhosale
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract

Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por(+). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8 nmol/mg material; with thermostability to 300 °C. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against four bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE family of pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; Acinetobacter baumannii; and Klebsiella pneumonia), as well as Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrated broad photodynamic inactivation of all bacterial strains studied upon illumination (30 min; 65 ± 5 mW/cm2; 400–700 nm) by a minimum of 99.9996+% (5.8 log units) regardless of taxonomic classification. PAN-Por(+) also inactivated human adenovirus-5 (~99.8% reduction in PFU/mL) and vesicular stomatitis virus (>7 log units reduction in PFU/mL). When compared to cellulose-based materials employing this same photosensitizer; the higher levels of photodynamic inactivation achieved here with PAN-Por(+) are likely due to the combined effects of higher photosensitizer loading and a greater surface area imparted by the use of nanofibers. These results demonstrate the potential of photosensitizer-embedded polyacrylonitrile nanofibers to serve as scalable scaffolds for anti-infective or self-sterilizing materials against both bacteria and viruses when employing a photodynamic inactivation mode of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic inactivation; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; photobiocidal; polyacrylonitrile; photosensitizer; porphyrin photodynamic inactivation; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; photobiocidal; polyacrylonitrile; photosensitizer; porphyrin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stanley, S.L.; Scholle, F.; Zhu, J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Situ, X.; Ghiladi, R.A. Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 77.

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