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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 61; doi:10.3390/nano6040061

Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

1
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Creativity, and Partner State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, The Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 11 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore City 119083, Singapore
3
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong, China
4
Institute of Chinese Medicine and Partner State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshihiro Ito
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
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Abstract

Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX) of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w) ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S.) mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A.) actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL) at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL) at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotechnology; Scutellaria baicalensis; traditional Chinese medicine; chlorhexidine; oral biofilms; antimicrobials nanotechnology; Scutellaria baicalensis; traditional Chinese medicine; chlorhexidine; oral biofilms; antimicrobials
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Leung, K.C.-F.; Seneviratne, C.J.; Li, X.; Leung, P.C.; Lau, C.B.S.; Wong, C.-H.; Pang, K.Y.; Wong, C.W.; Wat, E.; Jin, L. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 61.

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