Special Issue "Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Krasimir Vasilev

Mawson Institute and School of Engineering, Mawson Lakes Campus, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8302 5697
Fax: +61 8 8302 5689
Interests: Antibacterial coatings; biomaterials; medical devices; plasma polymers; surface modification; biointerfaces; drug delivery; nanomaterials
Guest Editor
Dr. Melanie Ramiasa

Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes Campus, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8302 3518
Interests: material science; surface chemistry; nanorough biomaterials; nanocomposite; plasma polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last decade, there have been exiting breakthroughs on the utilization of plasma process in the fabrication of a rich diversity of nanomaterials and nanoengineered coatings. Examples include nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanotextured coatings. Some of these materials cannot be derived and do not have analogues with materials obtainable by conventional means. These materials are revolutionizing a spectrum of fields, ranging from electronics to biology and medicine. This Special Issue aims at bringing together the latest advances in the fields of nanofabrication and their application in various fields. In addition, the issue aims at highlighting current challenges and obstacles that lie on the path to fully understand the fundamental physical phenomena underlying the plasma facilitated fabrication of nanomaterials. Further, this Special Issue aims to provide guidance to researchers in the field and inform the community of the future directions of the field.
We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles that will inspire research towards the next generation of plasma-derived nanomaterials and their applications. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:
-          Plasma synthesis of nanomaterials
-          Plasma nano-etching
-          Plasma nano texturing of surfaces
-          Plasma derived nanoscale coatings
-          Applications of plasma derived nanomaterials and nanoengineered surfaces
-          Modeling of plasma facilitated process for fabrication of nanomaterials

Prof. Dr. Krasimir Vasilev
Dr. Melanie Ramiasa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plasma nanomaterials
  • CVD
  • plasma polymerization
  • plasma nanosynthesis
  • plasma deposition
  • plasma etching

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(7), 122; doi:10.3390/nano6070122
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent advances in nanotechnology, plasma nanofabrication has become an exciting new niche because plasma-based approaches can deliver unique structures at the nanoscale that cannot be achieved by other techniques and/or in a more economical and environmentally friendly manner.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)

Research

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Open AccessArticle TiAl3-TiN Composite Nanoparticles Produced by Hydrogen Plasma-Metal Reaction: Synthesis, Passivation, and Characterization
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 101; doi:10.3390/nano6060101
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
TiAl3 and TiN composite nanoparticles were continuously synthesized from Ti–48Al master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction in a N2, H2 and Ar atmosphere. The phase, morphology, and size of the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission
[...] Read more.
TiAl3 and TiN composite nanoparticles were continuously synthesized from Ti–48Al master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction in a N2, H2 and Ar atmosphere. The phase, morphology, and size of the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) were used to analyze the surface phase constitution and oxygen content of the nanoparticles. The as-synthesized nanopowders were mainly composed of nearly spherical TiAl3 and tetragonal TiN phases, with a mean diameter of ~42 nm and mass fractions of 49.1% and 24.3%, respectively. Passivation in the atmosphere of Ar and O2 for 24 h at room temperature led to the formation of amorphous Al2O3 shells on the TiAl3 particle surface, with a mean thickness of ~5.0 nm and a mass fraction of ~23.5%, as well as TiO2 with a mass fraction of ~3.2%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Atomization Injection on Nanoparticle Processing in Suspension Plasma Spray
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(5), 94; doi:10.3390/nano6050094
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid atomization is applied in nanostructure dense coating technology to inject suspended nano-size powder materials into a suspension plasma spray (SPS) torch. This paper presents the effects of the atomization parameters on the nanoparticle processing. A numerical model was developed to simulate the
[...] Read more.
Liquid atomization is applied in nanostructure dense coating technology to inject suspended nano-size powder materials into a suspension plasma spray (SPS) torch. This paper presents the effects of the atomization parameters on the nanoparticle processing. A numerical model was developed to simulate the dynamic behaviors of the suspension droplets, the solid nanoparticles or agglomerates, as well as the interactions between them and the plasma gas. The plasma gas was calculated as compressible, multi-component, turbulent jet flow in Eulerian scheme. The droplets and the solid particles were calculated as discrete Lagrangian entities, being tracked through the spray process. The motion and thermal histories of the particles were given in this paper and their release and melting status were observed. The key parameters of atomization, including droplet size, injection angle and velocity were also analyzed. The study revealed that the nanoparticle processing in SPS preferred small droplets with better atomization and less aggregation from suspension preparation. The injection angle and velocity influenced the nanoparticle release percentage. Small angle and low initial velocity might have more nanoparticles released. Besides, the melting percentage of nanoparticles and agglomerates were studied, and the critical droplet diameter to ensure solid melting was drawn. Results showed that most released nanoparticles were well melted, but the agglomerates might be totally melted, partially melted, or even not melted at all, mainly depending on the agglomerate size. For better coating quality, the suspension droplet size should be limited to a critical droplet diameter, which was inversely proportional to the cubic root of weight content, for given critical agglomerate diameter of being totally melted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Post-Plasma SiOx Coatings of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Tunable Photoactivity Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(5), 91; doi:10.3390/nano6050091
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure
[...] Read more.
The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure trigger post-DBD gas phase reactions. DBD operating conditions are first scanned to produce ozone and dinitrogen pentoxide. In the selected conditions, these plasma species react with gaseous tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor downstream of the DBD. The gaseous intermediates then condense on the surface of nanoparticles and self-reactions lead to homogeneous solid SiOx coatings, with thickness from nanometer to micrometer. This confirms the interest of post-DBD injection of the organo-silicon precursor to achieve stable production of actives species with subsequent controlled thickness of SiOx coatings. SiOx coatings of spherical and agglomerated metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (Pt, CuO, TiO2) are achieved. In the selected DBD operating conditions, the thickness of homogeneous nanometer sized coatings of spherical nanoparticles depends on the reaction duration and on the precursor concentration. For agglomerates, operating conditions can be tuned to cover preferentially the interparticle contact zones between primary particles, shifting the sintering of platinum agglomerates to much higher temperatures than the usual sintering temperature. Potential applications for enhanced thermal stability and tunable photoactivity of coated agglomerates are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessCommunication Highly-Efficient Plasmon-Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Created by Means of Dry Plasma Reduction
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 70; doi:10.3390/nano6040070
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction
[...] Read more.
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction (DPR) and coating TiO2 paste onto the modified FTO glass through a screen printing method. As a result, the FTO/Ag-NPs/TiO2 photo-anode showed an enhancement of its photocurrent, whereas the FTO/Au-NPs/TiO2 photo-anode showed less photocurrent than even a standard photo-anode fabricated by simply coating TiO2 paste onto the modified FTO glass through screen printing. This result stems from the small size and high areal number density of Au-NPs on FTO glass, which prevent the incident light from reaching the TiO2 layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Lithium Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Induction Thermal Plasmas
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(4), 60; doi:10.3390/nano6040060
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lithium metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Four different systems—Li–Mn, Li–Cr, Li–Co, and Li–Ni—were compared to understand formation mechanism of Li–Me oxide nanoparticles in thermal plasma process. Analyses of X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy showed that Li–Me oxide nanoparticles were
[...] Read more.
Lithium metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Four different systems—Li–Mn, Li–Cr, Li–Co, and Li–Ni—were compared to understand formation mechanism of Li–Me oxide nanoparticles in thermal plasma process. Analyses of X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy showed that Li–Me oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in Li–Mn, Li–Cr, and Li–Co systems. Spinel structured LiMn2O4 with truncated octahedral shape was formed. Layer structured LiCrO2 or LiCoO2 nanoparticles with polyhedral shapes were also synthesized in Li–Cr or Li–Co systems. By contrast, Li–Ni oxide nanoparticles were not synthesized in the Li–Ni system. Nucleation temperatures of each metal in the considered system were evaluated. The relationship between the nucleation temperature and melting and boiling points suggests that the melting points of metal oxides have a strong influence on the formation of lithium metal oxide nanoparticles. A lower melting temperature leads to a longer reaction time, resulting in a higher fraction of the lithium metal oxide nanoparticles in the prepared nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/nano6030043
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon.
[...] Read more.
A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Assisted Synthesis of Ag2O Nanomaterials and Ag2O/RuO2 Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/nano6030042
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silver oxide, ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and its composites are widely used in a variety of applications. Plasma-mediated synthesis is one of the emerging technologies to prepare nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to synthesize
[...] Read more.
Silver oxide, ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and its composites are widely used in a variety of applications. Plasma-mediated synthesis is one of the emerging technologies to prepare nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to synthesize Ag2O and Ag2O/RuO2 nanocomposite materials. The prepared materials showed good crystallinity. The surface morphology of the Ag2O exhibited “garland-like” features, and it changed to “flower-like” and “leaf-like” at different NaOH concentrations. The Ag2O/RuO2 composite showed mixed structures of aggregated Ag2O and sheet-like RuO2. Mechanisms governing the material’s growth under atmospheric pressure plasma were proposed. Chemical analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the thermal decomposition behavior and the oxygen release pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Developments of the Physical and Electrical Properties of NiCr and NiCrSi Single-Layer and Bi-Layer Nano-Scale Thin-Film Resistors
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 39; doi:10.3390/nano6030039
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, commercial-grade NiCr (80 wt % Ni, 20 wt % Cr) and NiCrSi (55 wt % Ni, 40 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Si) were used as targets and the sputtering method was used to deposit NiCr and NiCrSi thin
[...] Read more.
In this study, commercial-grade NiCr (80 wt % Ni, 20 wt % Cr) and NiCrSi (55 wt % Ni, 40 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Si) were used as targets and the sputtering method was used to deposit NiCr and NiCrSi thin films on Al2O3 and Si substrates at room temperature under different deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films were amorphous phase, and the field-effect scanning electronic microscope observations showed that only nano-crystalline grains were revealed on the surfaces of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films. The log (resistivity) values of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased approximately linearly as their thicknesses increased. We found that the value of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR value) of the NiCr thin-film resistors was positive and that of the NiCrSi thin-film resistors was negative. To investigate these thin-film resistors with a low TCR value, we designed a novel bi-layer structure to fabricate the thin-film resistors via two different stacking methods. The bi-layer structures were created by depositing NiCr for 10 min as the upper (or lower) layer and depositing NiCrSi for 10, 30, or 60 min as the lower (or upper) layer. We aim to show that the stacking method had no apparent effect on the resistivity of the NiCr-NiCrSi bi-layer thin-film resistors but had large effect on the TCR value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 38; doi:10.3390/nano6030038
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
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Abstract
Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas
[...] Read more.
Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Resistive Switching of Plasma–Treated Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Resistive Random Access Memory
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 16; doi:10.3390/nano6010016
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on Si(100) substrates at 975 °C by a vapor-liquid-solid method with ~2 nm and ~4 nm gold thin films as catalysts, followed by an argon plasma treatment for the as-grown ZnO NWs. A single ZnO NW–based memory cell
[...] Read more.
ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on Si(100) substrates at 975 °C by a vapor-liquid-solid method with ~2 nm and ~4 nm gold thin films as catalysts, followed by an argon plasma treatment for the as-grown ZnO NWs. A single ZnO NW–based memory cell with a Ti/ZnO/Ti structure was then fabricated to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on the resistive switching. The plasma treatment improves the homogeneity and reproducibility of the resistive switching of the ZnO NWs, and it also reduces the switching (set and reset) voltages with less fluctuations, which would be associated with the increased density of oxygen vacancies to facilitate the resistive switching as well as to average out the stochastic movement of individual oxygen vacancies. Additionally, a single ZnO NW–based memory cell with self-rectification could also be obtained, if the inhomogeneous plasma treatment is applied to the two Ti/ZnO contacts. The plasma-induced oxygen vacancy disabling the rectification capability at one of the Ti/ZnO contacts is believed to be responsible for the self-rectification in the memory cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III–V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/nano6010004
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III–V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot,
[...] Read more.
The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III–V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III–V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructuring of Palladium with Low-Temperature Helium Plasma
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2007-2018; doi:10.3390/nano5042007
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (12052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Impingement of high fluxes of helium ions upon metals at elevated temperatures has given rise to the growth of nanostructured layers on the surface of several metals, such as tungsten and molybdenum. These nanostructured layers grow from the bulk material and have greatly
[...] Read more.
Impingement of high fluxes of helium ions upon metals at elevated temperatures has given rise to the growth of nanostructured layers on the surface of several metals, such as tungsten and molybdenum. These nanostructured layers grow from the bulk material and have greatly increased surface area over that of a not nanostructured surface. They are also superior to deposited nanostructures due to a lack of worries over adhesion and differences in material properties. Several palladium samples of varying thickness were biased and exposed to a helium helicon plasma. The nanostructures were characterized as a function of the thickness of the palladium layer and of temperature. Bubbles of ~100 nm in diameter appear to be integral to the nanostructuring process. Nanostructured palladium is also shown to have better catalytic activity than not nanostructured palladium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Selective Plasma Etching of Polymeric Substrates for Advanced Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 108; doi:10.3390/nano6060108
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In today’s nanoworld, there is a strong need to manipulate and process materials on an atom-by-atom scale with new tools such as reactive plasma, which in some states enables high selectivity of interaction between plasma species and materials. These interactions first involve preferential
[...] Read more.
In today’s nanoworld, there is a strong need to manipulate and process materials on an atom-by-atom scale with new tools such as reactive plasma, which in some states enables high selectivity of interaction between plasma species and materials. These interactions first involve preferential interactions with precise bonds in materials and later cause etching. This typically occurs based on material stability, which leads to preferential etching of one material over other. This process is especially interesting for polymeric substrates with increasing complexity and a “zoo” of bonds, which are used in numerous applications. In this comprehensive summary, we encompass the complete selective etching of polymers and polymer matrix micro-/nanocomposites with plasma and unravel the mechanisms behind the scenes, which ultimately leads to the enhancement of surface properties and device performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication)
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