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Water, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 1457-2115

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Open AccessArticle An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study
Water 2013, 5(4), 1457-1471; doi:10.3390/w5041457
Received: 4 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining [...] Read more.
Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies) to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of DOM and Removal of DBPs Precursors across O3-BAC Integrated Treatment for the Micro-Polluted Raw Water of the Huangpu River
Water 2013, 5(4), 1472-1486; doi:10.3390/w5041472
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the impact upon dissolved organic matter (DOM) and removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors of adding an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process after the conventional treatment process (CTP) using water from the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the impact upon dissolved organic matter (DOM) and removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors of adding an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process after the conventional treatment process (CTP) using water from the Huangpu River in Shanghai, east China. Several metrics, including size fractionation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), were employed to accomplish this goal. In the raw water collected from the Huangpu River, the low molecular weight (MW) molecules (MW <3 kDa) were absolutely dominant in DOM, accounting for more than 55% of total DOC, and the DOM resulted in a high THMFP level of 472.91 ± 4.63 µg/L after an excessive chlorination. The CTP reduced high MW molecules (MW >10 kDa) by 61% and the low MW molecules (MW <3 kDa) by only 8%. The O3-BAC presented an accumulated DOC removal efficiency of approximately 50%, in particular, showing a high degree of the removal effectiveness of low MW molecules. Samplings from the CTP, ozone and BAC were subjected to excessive chlorination to determine the THMFP, and the measured concentrations were 211.89 ± 4.58 µg/L, 169.52 ± 4.55 µg/L, and 124.42 ± 4.27 µg/L, respectively. Therefore, coupled with the THMFP removal rate of 74%, the addition of the O3-BAC process after an existing CTP improved the water quality of the effluent, particularly, in terms of the improved reduction in the precursors of DBPs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Manganese Coated Sand for Copper (II) Removal from Water in Batch Mode
Water 2013, 5(4), 1487-1501; doi:10.3390/w5041487
Received: 28 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
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Abstract
Removal of heavy metals, such as copper ions, from water is important to protect human health and the environment. In this study, manganese coated sand (MCS) was used as an adsorbent to remove copper ions in a batch system. Equilibrium data were [...] Read more.
Removal of heavy metals, such as copper ions, from water is important to protect human health and the environment. In this study, manganese coated sand (MCS) was used as an adsorbent to remove copper ions in a batch system. Equilibrium data were determined at a temperature of 25.6 °C and the Langmuir model was used to describe the experimental data. Mn-coating improved the removal of copper ions by 70% as compared to uncoated sand. Based on a kinetics study, the adsorption of copper ions on MCS was found to occur through a chemisorption process and the pseudo-second-order model was found to fit the kinetics experimental data well. Due to particle interactions, the equilibrium uptake was reduced as the ratio of sand to volume of solution increased. pH affected the removal of copper ions with lowest uptakes found at pH 3 and pHs >7, whilst at pHs in the range of 4 to 7, the uptake was highest and almost constant at the value of 0.0179 mg/g ± 4%. This study has also revealed that copper ions removal was dissolved oxygen (DO) dependent with the highest removal occurring at ambient DO concentration, which suggests that DO should be carefully studied when dealing with copper ions adsorption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pricing Policies in Managing Water Resources in Agriculture: An Application of Contract Theory to Unmetered Water
Water 2013, 5(4), 1502-1516; doi:10.3390/w5041502
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information). The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm [...] Read more.
The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information). The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm scale. The study draws inspiration from the pricing policies of a Reclamation and Irrigation Board in Northern Italy. It analyses the optimal design of current tariff strategies with respect both to the actual regulator’s goals and the cost recovery objective of an ideal regulator driven by European Water Framework Directive principles and having full information. The analysis is based on the logic of a Principal-Agent model implemented as a mathematical non-linear programming model. Given the current pricing structure and assuming zero transaction costs, the results show a relevant increase in net benefits for the ideal scenario with respect to the actual one as water use costs increase. Benefits differences between the two scenarios mark a limit in value below which mechanisms able to solve the existing asymmetries between the principal and the agents are economically desirable. The study concludes by showing that the current regulator’s discriminatory strategy (pricing structure) would be better justified with higher levels of cost for water use. However, the existence of non-zero transaction costs related to the control of water uses points to the need for further research in order to analyze incentive mechanisms in the absence of water metering. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Stakeholders’ Attitudes towards Water Markets in Southern Spain
Water 2013, 5(4), 1517-1532; doi:10.3390/w5041517
Received: 28 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research examines stakeholders’ perceptions of and preferences for water markets in agriculture, focusing on the likely barriers that might refrain them from participating in such markets. The research was carried out on the Guadalquivir River Basin and involved semi-quantitative methods, combining [...] Read more.
This research examines stakeholders’ perceptions of and preferences for water markets in agriculture, focusing on the likely barriers that might refrain them from participating in such markets. The research was carried out on the Guadalquivir River Basin and involved semi-quantitative methods, combining a structured survey and focus group discussions. A very simple questionnaire was administered to each irrigation stakeholder (i.e., managers, water right holders and non-holders). The main result is that stakeholders will only keep selling water seasonally as the rights remain linked to the land. Nonetheless, some relevant differences among stakeholders were found. Managers seem to be more interested in selling water than farmers. Another important discrepancy was found between water rights holders and non-holders. Access to a water rights system, types of existing infrastructure, and legal and administrative aspects are also important factors influencing the acceptability of water trading in the study area. These results might be helpful to policymakers who are currently evaluating the potential for water markets in Europe and have little observable market data to work with. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flood Modeling Using a Synthesis of Multi-Platform LiDAR Data
Water 2013, 5(4), 1533-1560; doi:10.3390/w5041533
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (15054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the utility of a high resolution ground-based (mobile and terrestrial) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset (0.2 m point-spacing) supplemented with a coarser resolution airborne LiDAR dataset (5 m point-spacing) for use in a flood inundation analysis. The techniques [...] Read more.
This study examined the utility of a high resolution ground-based (mobile and terrestrial) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset (0.2 m point-spacing) supplemented with a coarser resolution airborne LiDAR dataset (5 m point-spacing) for use in a flood inundation analysis. The techniques for combining multi-platform LiDAR data into a composite dataset in the form of a triangulated irregular network (TIN) are described, and quantitative comparisons were made to a TIN generated solely from the airborne LiDAR dataset. For example, a maximum land surface elevation difference of 1.677 m and a mean difference of 0.178 m were calculated between the datasets based on sample points. Utilizing the composite and airborne LiDAR-derived TINs, a flood inundation comparison was completed using a one-dimensional steady flow hydraulic modeling analysis. Quantitative comparisons of the water surface profiles and depth grids indicated an underestimation of flooding extent, volume, and maximum flood height using the airborne LiDAR data alone. A 35% increase in maximum flood height was observed using the composite LiDAR dataset. In addition, the extents of the water surface profiles generated from the two datasets were found to be statistically significantly different. The urban and mountainous characteristics of the study area as well as the density (file size) of the high resolution ground based LiDAR data presented both opportunities and challenges for flood modeling analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin
Water 2013, 5(4), 1561-1579; doi:10.3390/w5041561
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using growth factor curves. Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct confidence intervals CI on both the estimated Ts for given flows and the estimated FDF quantiles for given T. The average bias of the modeled T of high and low flows are for all catchments and Ts up to 25 years lower than 8%. Despite this relatively small average bias in the modeled T, the limits of the CI on the modeled 25-year flows go up to more than 100% for high flows and more than 150% for low flows. The assessed FDF relationships and accompanied uncertainties are useful for various types of risk based water engineering and water management applications related to floods and droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?
Water 2013, 5(4), 1580-1597; doi:10.3390/w5041580
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES), and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. [...] Read more.
This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES), and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a) an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b) residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle An Approach Using a 1D Hydraulic Model, Landsat Imaging and Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation for an Approximation of Flood Discharge
Water 2013, 5(4), 1598-1621; doi:10.3390/w5041598
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Collection and investigation of flood information are essential to understand the nature of floods, but this has proved difficult in data-poor environments, or in developing or under-developed countries due to economic and technological limitations. The development of remote sensing data, GIS, and [...] Read more.
Collection and investigation of flood information are essential to understand the nature of floods, but this has proved difficult in data-poor environments, or in developing or under-developed countries due to economic and technological limitations. The development of remote sensing data, GIS, and modeling techniques have, therefore, proved to be useful tools in the analysis of the nature of floods. Accordingly, this study attempts to estimate a flood discharge using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology and a 1D hydraulic model, with remote sensing data and topographic data, under the assumed condition that there is no gauge station in the Missouri river, Nebraska, and Wabash River, Indiana, in the United States. The results show that the use of Landsat leads to a better discharge approximation on a large-scale reach than on a small-scale. Discharge approximation using the GLUE depended on the selection of likelihood measures. Consideration of physical conditions in study reaches could, therefore, contribute to an appropriate selection of informal likely measurements. The river discharge assessed by using Landsat image and the GLUE Methodology could be useful in supplementing flood information for flood risk management at a planning level in ungauged basins. However, it should be noted that this approach to the real-time application might be difficult due to the GLUE procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding)
Open AccessArticle Shield or not to Shield: Effects of Solar Radiation on Water Temperature Sensor Accuracy
Water 2013, 5(4), 1622-1637; doi:10.3390/w5041622
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature sensors are potentially susceptible to errors due to heating by solar radiation. Although this is well known for air temperature (Ta), significance to continuous water temperature (Tw) monitoring is relatively untested. This paper assesses radiative errors by comparing measurements of exposed [...] Read more.
Temperature sensors are potentially susceptible to errors due to heating by solar radiation. Although this is well known for air temperature (Ta), significance to continuous water temperature (Tw) monitoring is relatively untested. This paper assesses radiative errors by comparing measurements of exposed and shielded Tinytag sensors under indirect and direct solar radiation, and in laboratory experiments under controlled, artificial light. In shallow, still-water and under direct solar radiation, measurement discrepancies between exposed and shielded sensors averaged 0.4 °C but can reach 1.6 °C. Around 0.3 °C of this inconsistency is explained by variance in measurement accuracy between sensors; the remainder is attributed to solar radiation. Discrepancies were found to increase with light intensity, but to attain Tw differences in excess of 0.5 °C requires direct, bright solar radiation (>400 W m−2 in the total spectrum). Under laboratory conditions, radiative errors are an order of magnitude lower when thermistors are placed in flowing water (even at velocities as low as 0.1 m s−1). Radiative errors were also modest relative to the discrepancy between different thermistor manufacturers. Based on these controlled experiments, a set of guidelines are recommended for deploying thermistor arrays in water bodies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Tap Water Quality Improvements: Results of a Contingent Valuation Survey in Pusan
Water 2013, 5(4), 1638-1652; doi:10.3390/w5041638
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
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Abstract
With increasing concern regarding health, people have developed an interest in the safety of drinking water. In this study, we attempt to measure the economic benefits of tap water quality improvement through a case study on Pusan, the second largest city in [...] Read more.
With increasing concern regarding health, people have developed an interest in the safety of drinking water. In this study, we attempt to measure the economic benefits of tap water quality improvement through a case study on Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. To this end, we use a scenario that the government plans to implement a new project of improving water quality and apply the contingent valuation (CV) method. A one-and-one-half bounded dichotomous choice question (OOHBDC) format is employed to reduce the potential for response bias in multiple-bound formats such as the double-bound model, while maintaining much of the efficiency. Moreover, we employ the spike model to deal with zero willingness to pay (WTP) responses from the OOHBDC CV survey. The CV survey of 400 randomly selected households was rigorously designed to comply with the guidelines for best-practice CV studies using person-to-person interviews. From the spike OOHBDC CV model, the mean WTP for the improvement was estimated to be KRW 2,124 (USD 2.2), on average, per household, per month. The value amounts to 36.6% of monthly water bill and 20.2% of production costs of water. The conventional OOHBDC model produces statistically insignificant mean WTP estimate and even negative value, but the OOHBDC spike model gives us statistically significant mean WTP estimate and fitted our data well. The WTP value to Pusan residents can be computed to be KRW 31.2 billion (USD 32.1 million) per year. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages
Water 2013, 5(4), 1662-1676; doi:10.3390/w5041662
Received: 21 August 2013 / Revised: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been said that Palermo is short of available water. However, nothing could be more wrong. Well-documented Arab sources and narrative chronicles reported an abundance of groundwater resources in Palermo Plain since the Middle Ages. The scarcity of sources and surface [...] Read more.
It has been said that Palermo is short of available water. However, nothing could be more wrong. Well-documented Arab sources and narrative chronicles reported an abundance of groundwater resources in Palermo Plain since the Middle Ages. The scarcity of sources and surface water in the Palermo Plain, compared to the groundwater abundance, led the inhabitants to use groundwater both for irrigation and domestic usage through a complex and sustainable hydraulic system. Vertical and horizontal (qanāts) wells, conveyed water towards gardens and public fountains making the Arabic Bal’harm (Palermo) a flourishing town. When visitors walk through the streets of Palermo’s historical center, among Arab ruins and Baroque architecture, they hardly imagine that there is a wide and varied cultural heritage of underground cavities hidden in the basements where water flows in intricate networks fed from a numerous springs. Only in recent years was a part of this system brought to light. Moreover, the city still has a wide and fascinating water distribution system consisting of irrigation basin (gebbie), ingenious hydraulic machines named senie, and distribution chessboard of irrigation (saje) and drinking water (catusi) canals. The medieval water collection and distribution systems and their various components in the Palermo Plain are reviewed together with the influence of the Arab water management on environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stream Water and Groundwater Interaction Revealed by Temperature Monitoring in Agricultural Areas
Water 2013, 5(4), 1677-1698; doi:10.3390/w5041677
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 30 September 2013 / Accepted: 7 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Variations in stream water, streambed, adjacent stream sediment, and groundwater temperatures in the Haean basin, Korea were examined using time series analyses including auto-correlation, spectral density, and cross-correlation functions. The temperatures of the ambient air, stream water, streambed (depth = 10 cm), [...] Read more.
Variations in stream water, streambed, adjacent stream sediment, and groundwater temperatures in the Haean basin, Korea were examined using time series analyses including auto-correlation, spectral density, and cross-correlation functions. The temperatures of the ambient air, stream water, streambed (depth = 10 cm), and adjacent stream sediment (depth = 10 cm) showed distinctive diurnal variations with long-term seasonal cooling trends, while groundwater temperature showed only a seasonal decreasing trend with little diurnal variations. Auto-correlations and spectral densities of the stream water, streambed, and sediment temperatures also revealed strong daily cyclical behaviors, with longer periodic cycles varying from weekly to monthly. Amplitudes and lag times of the streambed thermal signals were also affected by the hydraulic conductivities of the sediments. Lower hydraulic conductivity indicates a more attenuated and slower thermal response for the streambed. The calculated vertical water flow velocities of the streambed revealed that the investigated stream locations were under losing or gaining conditions, depending on the location and time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stormwater Tank Performance: Design and Management Criteria for Capture Tanks Using a Continuous Simulation and a Semi-Probabilistic Analytical Approach
Water 2013, 5(4), 1699-1711; doi:10.3390/w5041699
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
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Abstract
Stormwater tank performance significantly depends on management practices. This paper proposes a procedure to assess tank efficiency in terms of volume and pollutant concentration using four different capture tank management protocols. The comparison of the efficiency results reveals that, as expected, a [...] Read more.
Stormwater tank performance significantly depends on management practices. This paper proposes a procedure to assess tank efficiency in terms of volume and pollutant concentration using four different capture tank management protocols. The comparison of the efficiency results reveals that, as expected, a combined bypass—stormwater tank system achieves better results than a tank alone. The management practices tested for the tank-only systems provide notably different efficiency results. The practice of immediately emptying after the end of the event exhibits significant levels of efficiency and operational advantages. All other configurations exhibit either significant operational problems or very low performances. The continuous simulation and semi-probabilistic approach for the best tank management practice are compared. The semi-probabilistic approach is based on a Weibull probabilistic model of the main characteristics of the rainfall process. Following this approach, efficiency indexes were established. The comparison with continuous simulations shows the reliability of the probabilistic approach even if this last is certainly very site sensitive. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mixing Precipitation of CaCO3 in Natural Waters
Water 2013, 5(4), 1712-1722; doi:10.3390/w5041712
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
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Abstract
The mixing precipitation of CaCO3 in natural waters was theoretically studied by the methods of chemical equilibrium calculation. Results show that mixing precipitation of CaCO3 can be produced by mixing between two unsaturated water samples with respect to CaCO3 [...] Read more.
The mixing precipitation of CaCO3 in natural waters was theoretically studied by the methods of chemical equilibrium calculation. Results show that mixing precipitation of CaCO3 can be produced by mixing between two unsaturated water samples with respect to CaCO3, two oversaturated water samples, an unsaturated water sample and an oversaturated water sample. Mixing precipitation can be classified into two major different types: mixing precipitation in a strict sense and mixing precipitation in a broad sense. Mixing precipitation in a strict sense refers to the mixing effect that makes the state of CaCO3 change from dissolution into precipitation, or the increases in the precipitability of CaCO3 in mixed water. Mixing precipitation in a broad sense refers to the mixing effect that reduces the solubility of CaCO3 in mixed water. Mixing precipitation is controlled by simultaneous chemical equilibria. Generally, if the HCO3 concentration is higher in one solution and the Ca2+ concentration is higher in the other, mixing precipitation of CaCO3 will occur when they are combined. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Water Velocity and Specific Surface Area on Filamentous Periphyton Biomass in an Artificial Stream Mesocosm
Water 2013, 5(4), 1723-1740; doi:10.3390/w5041723
Received: 3 September 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
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Abstract
To evaluate the effects of water velocity and artificial substratum characteristics on the growth rate and biomass accumulation of periphyton, an artificial stream mesocosm experiment was conducted using alternative water sources collected from the Mangwall Stream (MW), the Han River (HR), and [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of water velocity and artificial substratum characteristics on the growth rate and biomass accumulation of periphyton, an artificial stream mesocosm experiment was conducted using alternative water sources collected from the Mangwall Stream (MW), the Han River (HR), and bank filtration water (BFW) from the Han River in the Republic of Korea. The measured concentrations of organic matter and inorganic nutrients in the MW were higher than in the HR and BFW. The surface of tile is relatively smooth and nonporous, whereas the surfaces of concrete and pebble are rough with numerous isolated pores in which filamentous periphyton become immobilized against hydrodynamic shear stress and mat tensile strength. Compared with the periphyton biomass of the HR and BFW, the peak biomass in the MW was significantly higher due to higher nutrient concentrations in the MW. Reasonable linear relationships (R2 0.69) between water velocity and total periphyton biomass/growth rate were obtained, indicating that water velocities above critical values can cause a reduction in biomass accrual. In addition, reasonable relationships (R2 0.58) between specific surface area and total periphyton biomass were obtained for the HR and BFW, indicating that an increase in the specific surface area of the substratum can lead to an increase in periphyton biomass in a nutrient-poor water body. Principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate that nutrient concentrations were the first dominant limiting factor for the growth and accumulation of periphyton, and water velocity and the specific surface area of the substratum were determined to be potential limiting factors. Consequently, the growth rate and biomass accumulation of periphyton were considered to be a complex function of nutrient concentrations, water velocities, and substratum characteristics. Full article
Open AccessArticle Selecting Sustainable Drainage Structures Based on Ecosystem Service Variables Estimated by Different Stakeholder Groups
Water 2013, 5(4), 1741-1759; doi:10.3390/w5041741
Received: 17 August 2013 / Revised: 30 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In times of recession, expert systems supporting environmental managers undergo a revival. However, the retrofitting of sustainable water structures is currently undertaken ad hoc using engineering experience supported by minimal formal guidance. There is a lack of practical decision tools that can [...] Read more.
In times of recession, expert systems supporting environmental managers undergo a revival. However, the retrofitting of sustainable water structures is currently undertaken ad hoc using engineering experience supported by minimal formal guidance. There is a lack of practical decision tools that can be used by different professions for the rapid assessment of ecosystem services that can be created when retrofitting water structures. Thus the aim was to develop an innovative decision support tool based on the rapid estimation of novel ecosystem service variables at low cost and acceptable uncertainty. The tool proposes the retrofitting of those sustainable drainage systems that obtained the highest ecosystem services score for a specific urban site subject to professional bias. The estimation of variables was undertaken with high confidence and manageable error at low cost. In comparison to common public opinion, statistically significant differences between social scientists and the general public for the estimation of land costs using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test were found. It was also surprising to find no significant differences in the estimation of habitat for species by civil engineers and ecologists. The new methodology may lead to an improvement of the existing urban landscape by promoting ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle How Much for Water? Economic Assessment and Mapping of Floodplain Water Storage as a Catchment-Scale Ecosystem Service of Wetlands
Water 2013, 5(4), 1760-1779; doi:10.3390/w5041760
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
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Abstract
The integration of water management goals in protected wetland areas agriculturally managed in an intensive manner recalls the comparison of apples (ecological values) and oranges (economic dimension of agriculture). Sustainable wetland management frequently fails if environmental features are not referred to as [...] Read more.
The integration of water management goals in protected wetland areas agriculturally managed in an intensive manner recalls the comparison of apples (ecological values) and oranges (economic dimension of agriculture). Sustainable wetland management frequently fails if environmental features are not referred to as ecosystem services and quantified in economic terms. In our hydrological-economical study on floodplain wetlands located in the Lower Basin of the Biebrza Valley, we attempt to quantify the monetary value of water storage in the floodplain during flood phenomena as an important ecosystem service. The unit monetary value of water storage in the catchment of Biebrza Valley was assessed on the basis of small artificial water reservoirs, constructed in recent years and located in the area of research, and reached 0.53 EUR·m−3·year−1. In a GIS-based study on hydrological floodplain processes in the years 1995–2011, we assessed the average annual volume of active water storage in the floodplain which reached 10.36 M m3 year−1, giving a monetary value of EUR 5.49 million per annum. We propose that the methodology presented in our analysis could be applied as water storage subsidies in valuable floodplains, to prevent their deterioration originating from agriculture intensification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy
Water 2013, 5(4), 1780-1796; doi:10.3390/w5041780
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
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Abstract
Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods) that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their [...] Read more.
Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods) that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy), with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Regression Modeling of Baseflow and Baseflow Index for Michigan USA
Water 2013, 5(4), 1797-1815; doi:10.3390/w5041797
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
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Abstract
Baseflow plays an important role in maintaining streamflow. Seventeen gauged watersheds and their characteristics were used to develop regression models for annual baseflow and baseflow index (BFI) estimation in Michigan. Baseflow was estimated from daily streamflow records using the two-parameter recursive digital [...] Read more.
Baseflow plays an important role in maintaining streamflow. Seventeen gauged watersheds and their characteristics were used to develop regression models for annual baseflow and baseflow index (BFI) estimation in Michigan. Baseflow was estimated from daily streamflow records using the two-parameter recursive digital filter method for baseflow separation of the Web-based Hydrograph Analysis Tool (WHAT) program. Three equations (two for annual baseflow and one for BFI estimation) were developed and validated. Results indicated that observed average annual baseflow ranged from 162 to 345 mm, and BFI varied from 0.45 to 0.80 during 1967–2011. The average BFI value during the study period was 0.71, suggesting that about 70% of long-term streamflow in the studied watersheds were likely supported by baseflow. The regression models estimated baseflow and BFI with relative errors (RE) varying from −29% to 48% and from −14% to 19%, respectively. In absence of reliable information to determine groundwater discharge in streams and rivers, these equations can be used to estimate BFI and annual baseflow in Michigan. Full article
Open AccessArticle Magnitude Frequency Analysis of Small Floods Using the Annual and Partial Series
Water 2013, 5(4), 1816-1829; doi:10.3390/w5041816
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
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Abstract
Flood frequency analysis using partial series data has been shown to provide better estimates of small to medium magnitude flood events than the annual series, but the annual series is more often employed due to its simplicity. Where partial series average recurrence [...] Read more.
Flood frequency analysis using partial series data has been shown to provide better estimates of small to medium magnitude flood events than the annual series, but the annual series is more often employed due to its simplicity. Where partial series average recurrence intervals are required, annual series values are often “converted” to partial series values using the Langbein equation, regardless of whether the statistical assumptions behind the equation are fulfilled. This study uses data from Northern Tasmanian stream-gauging stations to make empirical comparisons between annual series and partial flood frequency estimates and values provided by the Langbein equation. At T = 1.1 years annual series estimates were found to be one third the magnitude of partial series estimates, while Langbein adjusted estimates were three quarters the magnitude of partial series estimates. The three methods converged as average recurrence interval increased until there was no significant difference between the different methods at T = 5 years. These results suggest that while the Langbein equation reduces the differences between the quantile estimates of annual maxima derived from annual maxima series and partial duration series flood frequency estimates, it does not provide a suitable alternative method to using partial series data. These results have significance for the practical estimation of the magnitude-frequency of small floods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers: A Primary Case Study along the Adriatic Coast Investigated within a Probabilistic Framework
Water 2013, 5(4), 1830-1847; doi:10.3390/w5041830
Received: 20 August 2013 / Revised: 20 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract
Environmentally sensitive areas along coastlines may be adversely affected by saltwater intrusion (SI), a condition which can be worsened by extensive groundwater extraction. Given the uncertainty of problem parameters, the risk of contamination of the vegetation capture zone needs to be cast [...] Read more.
Environmentally sensitive areas along coastlines may be adversely affected by saltwater intrusion (SI), a condition which can be worsened by extensive groundwater extraction. Given the uncertainty of problem parameters, the risk of contamination of the vegetation capture zone needs to be cast in a probabilistic framework. In order to exemplify real situations existing along the Adriatic coast of Emilia-Romagna, a case study involving a pinewood strip and a well field drawing freshwater from an unconfined coastal aquifer was examined. On the basis of a widely adopted sharp interface formulation, key hydrogeological problem parameters were modeled as random variables, and a global sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine their influence on the position of the interface. This analysis utilized an efficient model reduction technique based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion. The risk that saltwater intrusion affects coastal vegetation was then evaluated via a two-step procedure by computing the probability that (i) the leading edge of the saltwater wedge reaches the sensitive area in the horizontal plane, and (ii) the freshwater/saltwater interface reaches the capture zone. The influence of the design parameters of the well field on the overall probability of contamination was investigated, revealing the primary role of the pumping discharge in the examined configuration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dry/Wet Conditions Monitoring Based on TRMM Rainfall Data and Its Reliability Validation over Poyang Lake Basin, China
Water 2013, 5(4), 1848-1864; doi:10.3390/w5041848
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract
Local dry/wet conditions are of great concern in regional water resource and floods/droughts disaster risk management. Satellite-based precipitation products have greatly improved their accuracy and applicability and are expected to offer an alternative to ground rain gauges data. This paper investigated the [...] Read more.
Local dry/wet conditions are of great concern in regional water resource and floods/droughts disaster risk management. Satellite-based precipitation products have greatly improved their accuracy and applicability and are expected to offer an alternative to ground rain gauges data. This paper investigated the capability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data for monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin during 1998–2010, and validated its reliability with rain gauges data from 14 national meteorological stations in the basin. The results show that: (1) the daily TRMM rainfall data does not describe the occurrence and contribution rates of precipitation accurately, but monthly TRMM data have a good linear relationship with rain gauges rainfall data; (2) both the Z index and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) based on monthly TRMM rainfall data oscillate around zero and show a consistent interannual variability as compared with rain gauges data; (3) the spatial pattern of moisture status, either in dry months or wet months, based on both the Z index and SPI using TRMM data, agree with the observed rainfall. In conclusion, the monthly TRMM rainfall data can be used for monitoring the variation and spatial distribution of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Perceptions of Water Ownership, Water Management, and the Responsibility of Providing Clean Water
Water 2013, 5(4), 1865-1889; doi:10.3390/w5041865
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract
Perceptions of water and water related issues still render many under-researched topics. This study aims to further our knowledge regarding people’s perceptions of water and our understanding about the different ways individuals use water. The authors asked the question: Does the way [...] Read more.
Perceptions of water and water related issues still render many under-researched topics. This study aims to further our knowledge regarding people’s perceptions of water and our understanding about the different ways individuals use water. The authors asked the question: Does the way an individual perceives water (i.e., as a commodity, a human right, private resource, public resource and/or natural resource) influence consumption and conservation of water, and sentiments towards control and allocation of water? An exploratory online questionnaire was designed to generate qualitative and quantitative data of survey participants’ perceptions, beliefs and actions towards water issues, such as overconsumption and scarcity. Data analysis included comparison of the quantitative data regarding the non-statistical association between how an individual perceives water and the individual’s beliefs, as well as qualitative analysis of the comments using an iterative pattern coding technique. One hundred and sixty four individuals participated in the survey (75% completion rate) and over 430 comments were made. Themes that emerged from the comments included: responsibility, scarcity, the value of water, knowledge gained and education needed. Comparison of the different perceptions of water revealed that different perceptions of what water is resulted in different beliefs about what the cost of water should be. These findings have implications for future water use, including what needs to change in order to increase appreciation for water issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)
Water 2013, 5(4), 1890-1915; doi:10.3390/w5041890
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract
Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus [...] Read more.
Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH) and 7.6 (2100 level) by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm). Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C) using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C) and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71%) and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%), possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70%) and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%). We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater
Water 2013, 5(4), 1941-1951; doi:10.3390/w5041941
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 16 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
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Abstract
The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible [...] Read more.
The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2). If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO) and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L). Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Web-Based L-THIA 2012 Direct Runoff and Pollutant Auto-Calibration Module Using a Genetic Algorithm
Water 2013, 5(4), 1952-1966; doi:10.3390/w5041952
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
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Abstract
The Long-Term Hydrology Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model has been used as a screening evaluation tool in assessing not only urbanization, but also land-use changes on hydrology in many countries. However, L-THIA has limitations due to the number of available land-use data that [...] Read more.
The Long-Term Hydrology Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model has been used as a screening evaluation tool in assessing not only urbanization, but also land-use changes on hydrology in many countries. However, L-THIA has limitations due to the number of available land-use data that can represent a watershed and the land surface complexity causing uncertainties in manually calibrating various input parameters of L-THIA. Thus, we modified the L-THIA model so that could use various (twenty three) land-use categories by considering various hydrologic responses and nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loads. Then, we developed a web-based auto-calibration module by integrating a Genetic-Algorithm (GA) into the L-THIA 2012 that can automatically calibrate Curve Numbers (CNs) for direct runoff estimations. Based on the optimized CNs and Even Mean Concentrations (EMCs), our approach calibrated surface runoff and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution loads by minimizing the differences between the observed and simulated data. Here, we used default EMCs of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus-TP (as the default values to L-THIA) collected at various local regions in South Korea corresponding to the classifications of different rainfall intensities and land use for improving predicted NPS pollutions. For assessing the model performance, the Yeoju-Gun and Icheon-Si sites in South Korea were selected. The calibrated runoff and NPS (BOD, TN, and TP) pollutions matched the observations with the correlation (R2: 0.908 for runoff and R2: 0.882–0.981 for NPS) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE: 0.794 for runoff and NSE: 0.882–0.981 for NPS) for the sites. We also compared the NPS pollution differences between the calibrated and averaged (default) EMCs. The calibrated TN and TP (only for Yeoju-Gun) EMCs-based pollution loads identified well with the measured data at the study sites, but the BOD loads with the averaged EMCs were slightly better than those of the calibrated EMCs. The TP loads for the Yeoju-Gun site were usually comparable to the measured data, but the TP loads of the Icheon-Si site had uncertainties. These findings indicate that the web-based auto-calibration module integrated with L-THIA 2012 could calibrate not only the surface runoff and NPS pollutions well, but also provide easy access to users across the world. Thus, our approach could be useful in providing a tool for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for policy/decision-makers. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Assessment of Disproportionate Costs in WFD: The Experience of Emilia-Romagna
Water 2013, 5(4), 1967-1995; doi:10.3390/w5041967
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
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Abstract
This study develops a methodology for the assessment of disproportionate costs according to the Water Framework Directive guidelines. The originality of the approach lies in the focus on the interdependencies between water bodies and the consideration of the multiple interactions between measures [...] Read more.
This study develops a methodology for the assessment of disproportionate costs according to the Water Framework Directive guidelines. The originality of the approach lies in the focus on the interdependencies between water bodies and the consideration of the multiple interactions between measures and pressures. However, the broad architecture of the study fits into a wider assessment procedure, already developed in recent studies. Specifically, a cost effectiveness analysis, implemented to select an efficient combination of measures, is integrated with a cost benefit analysis, which allows for the evaluation of the economic feasibility of the proposed actions. This methodology is applied to the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). In spite of the uncertainties in the estimations of costs and benefits, the study enables the identification of areas where disproportionate costs are more likely to occur. The results show that disproportionality tends to increase from foothill regions, where most of the functional uses of regional water resources are found, to plain areas, where the sources of pressure tend to be located. Finally, the study offers policy direction for the selection of measures in the case study region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Urban Wastewaters’ Characteristics by Visible and Short Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Water 2013, 5(4), 2026-2036; doi:10.3390/w5042026
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
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Abstract
On-line monitoring of wastewater parameters is a major scientific and technical challenge because of the great variability of wastewater characteristics and the extreme physical-chemical conditions that endure the sensors. Wastewater treatment plant managers require fast and reliable information about the input sewage [...] Read more.
On-line monitoring of wastewater parameters is a major scientific and technical challenge because of the great variability of wastewater characteristics and the extreme physical-chemical conditions that endure the sensors. Wastewater treatment plant managers require fast and reliable information about the input sewage and the operation of the different treatment stages. There is a great need for the development of sensors for the continuous monitoring of wastewater parameters. In this sense, several optical systems have been evaluated. This article presents an experimental laboratory-based approach to quantify commonly employed urban wastewater parameters, namely biochemical oxygen demand in five days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and the ratio BOD5:COD, with a visible and short wave near infrared (V/SW-NIR) spectrometer (400–1000 nm). Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were developed in order to quantify the wastewater parameters with the recorded spectra. PLSR models were developed for the full spectral range and also for the visible and near infrared spectral ranges separately. Good PLSR models were obtained with the visible spectral range for BOD5 (RER = 9.64), COD (RER = 10.88), and with the full spectral range for the TSS (RER = 9.67). The results of this study show that V/SW-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable technique for on-line monitoring of wastewater parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Green Infrastructure Design for Stormwater Runoff and Water Quality: Empirical Evidence from Large Watershed-Scale Community Developments
Water 2013, 5(4), 2038-2057; doi:10.3390/w5042038
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
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Abstract
Green infrastructure (GI) design is advocated as a new paradigm for stormwater management, whereas current knowledge of GI design is mostly based on isolated design strategies used at small-scale sites. This study presents empirical findings from two watershed-scale community projects (89.4 km [...] Read more.
Green infrastructure (GI) design is advocated as a new paradigm for stormwater management, whereas current knowledge of GI design is mostly based on isolated design strategies used at small-scale sites. This study presents empirical findings from two watershed-scale community projects (89.4 km2 and 55.7 km2) in suburban Houston, Texas. The GI development integrates a suite of on-site, infiltration-based stormwater management designs, and an adjacent community development follows conventional drainage design. Parcel data were used to estimate the site impervious cover area. Observed streamflow and water quality data (i.e., NO3-N, NH3-N, and TP) were correlated with the site imperviousness. Results show that, as of 2009, the impervious cover percentage in the GI site (32.3%) is more than twice that of the conventional site (13.7%). However, the GI site’s precipitation-streamflow ratio maintains a steady, low range, whereas this ratio fluctuates substantially in the conventional site, suggesting a “flashy” stream condition. Furthermore, in the conventional site, annual nutrient loadings are significantly correlated with its impervious cover percentage (p < 0.01), whereas in the GI site there is little correlation. The study concludes that integrated GI design can be effective in stormwater runoff reduction and water quality enhancement at watershed-scale community development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Are Public-Private Partnerships a Source of Greater Efficiency in Water Supply? Results of a Non-Parametric Performance Analysis Relating to the Italian Industry
Water 2013, 5(4), 2058-2079; doi:10.3390/w5042058
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
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Abstract
This article reports the outcome of a performance study of the water service provision industry in Italy. The study evaluates the efficiency of 21 “private or public-private” equity and 32 “public” equity water service operators and investigates controlling factors. In particular, the [...] Read more.
This article reports the outcome of a performance study of the water service provision industry in Italy. The study evaluates the efficiency of 21 “private or public-private” equity and 32 “public” equity water service operators and investigates controlling factors. In particular, the influence that the operator typology and service management nature - private vs. public - has on efficiency is assessed. The study employed a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis methodology. In the first stage, the operational efficiency of water supply operators is calculated by implementing a conventional BCC DEA model, that uses both physical infrastructure and financial input and output variables to explore economies of scale. In the second stage, bootstrapped DEA and Tobit regression are performed to estimate the influence that a number of environmental factors have on water supplier efficiency. The results show that the integrated water provision industry in Italy is characterized by operational inefficiencies of service operators, and scale and agglomeration economies may have a not negligible effect on efficiency. In addition, the operator typology and its geographical location affect efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydraulic Features of Flow through Emergent Bending Aquatic Vegetation in the Riparian Zone
Water 2013, 5(4), 2080-2093; doi:10.3390/w5042080
Received: 29 September 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
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Abstract
Vegetation in riparian zones has a significant influence on resistance, velocity distribution and turbulence intensity. This study experimentally investigated the effect of emergent bending riparian zone vegetation on the flow. The results showed that the frond and stem parts of Acorus calami [...] Read more.
Vegetation in riparian zones has a significant influence on resistance, velocity distribution and turbulence intensity. This study experimentally investigated the effect of emergent bending riparian zone vegetation on the flow. The results showed that the frond and stem parts of Acorus calami had different influences on hydraulic features and that the relative depth ratio of water depth h to stem height hs was a key determinant of those influences. Manning coefficient n varied greatly with the variation of vegetation densities, relative depth ratio of water depth h to stem height hs, Re and Fr. Manning coefficient n increased with increasing vegetation density, particularly in cases when h/hs > 1. The velocity distributions did not follow logarithmic profiles, but they instead exhibited double logarithmic profiles. In addition, vegetation characteristics were shown to influence the height of maximum velocity. The position of maximum velocity is further away from the bed in cases with denser vegetation distribution. Finally, turbulence intensity showed more significant variation in the stem part and peaked near the middle of the stem, at z/hs = 0.5, where z was the distance from the bottom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)

Review

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Open AccessReview Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming
Water 2013, 5(4), 1653-1661; doi:10.3390/w5041653
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
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Abstract
Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming) tend to change slowly over long periods of time, although their intensity and effects are contingent on local conditions. On the other hand, local stressors tend to change rapidly over shorter, more defined spatial and temporal scales. Hence, local stressors can be subject to a greater degree of control through local management (e.g., eutrophication and overfishing) while global stressors are characterized by an intrinsic inertia whose effects last for decades, if not centuries. Although the reduction of carbon emissions is an international priority for managing global stressors, it requires international agreements and management applications that take considerable time to develop. Managers, however, may ‘buy time’ by acting on stressors whose governance is local (e.g., reducing nutrient input) and are known to synergize with global stressors (e.g., enriched CO2). Such local actions may potentially disrupt synergies with the more slowly changing global stressors that can only be reduced over longer time scales. Full article
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Open AccessReview History of Water Cisterns: Legacies and Lessons
Water 2013, 5(4), 1916-1940; doi:10.3390/w5041916
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
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Abstract
The use of water cisterns has been traced back to the Neolithic Age; this paper thus presents a brief historical development of water cisterns worldwide over the last 5500 years. This paper is not an exhaustive presentation of all that is known [...] Read more.
The use of water cisterns has been traced back to the Neolithic Age; this paper thus presents a brief historical development of water cisterns worldwide over the last 5500 years. This paper is not an exhaustive presentation of all that is known today about water cisterns, but rather provides some characteristic examples of cistern technology in a chronological manner extending from prehistoric times to the present. The examples of water cistern technologies and management practices given in this paper may have some importance for water resource sustainability for the present and future. Cisterns have been used to store both rainfall runoff water and aqueduct water originating in springs and streams for the purpose of meeting water needs through seasonal variations. Cisterns have ranged in construction from simple clay pots to large underground structures. Full article
Open AccessReview Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times
Water 2013, 5(4), 1996-2025; doi:10.3390/w5041996
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC), is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply, presently and in future, both in developed and developing countries. Full article
Open AccessReview Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW)
Water 2013, 5(4), 2094-2115; doi:10.3390/w5042094
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
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Abstract
The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can [...] Read more.
The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included with the device recommends the consumption of 1–1.5 L of water per day, not only for gastro-intestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. Academic research in Japan on this subject has been undergoing since 1990 only but has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen that eliminates the free radical HO• in vivo. In addition, it was demonstrated that degradation of the electrodes during functioning of the device releases very reactive nanoparticles of platinum, the toxicity of which has not yet been clearly proven. This report recommends alerting health authorities of the uncontrolled availability of these devices used as health products, but which generate drug substances and should therefore be sold according to regulatory requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Nanninga, T.A., et al. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation. Water 2012, 4, 739–758
Water 2013, 5(4), 2037; doi:10.3390/w5042037
Received: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
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Abstract There is one mistake in this article [1]. On page 753, line 12, the phrase “(application load of 80 tons/ha)” should be “(application load of 80 kg/ha)”. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)

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