Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
An Assessment of Disproportionate Costs in WFD: The Experience of Emilia-Romagna
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 50, Bologna 40127, Italy
Department of Statistical Science, University of Bologna, Via delle Belle Arti 41, Bologna 40126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2013; in revised form: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Abstract: This study develops a methodology for the assessment of disproportionate costs according to the Water Framework Directive guidelines. The originality of the approach lies in the focus on the interdependencies between water bodies and the consideration of the multiple interactions between measures and pressures. However, the broad architecture of the study fits into a wider assessment procedure, already developed in recent studies. Specifically, a cost effectiveness analysis, implemented to select an efficient combination of measures, is integrated with a cost benefit analysis, which allows for the evaluation of the economic feasibility of the proposed actions. This methodology is applied to the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). In spite of the uncertainties in the estimations of costs and benefits, the study enables the identification of areas where disproportionate costs are more likely to occur. The results show that disproportionality tends to increase from foothill regions, where most of the functional uses of regional water resources are found, to plain areas, where the sources of pressure tend to be located. Finally, the study offers policy direction for the selection of measures in the case study region.
Keywords: cost disproportionality; Water Framework Directive (WFD); cost effectiveness analysis (CEA); cost benefit analysis (CBA)
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Galioto, F.; Marconi, V.; Raggi, M.; Viaggi, D. An Assessment of Disproportionate Costs in WFD: The Experience of Emilia-Romagna. Water 2013, 5, 1967-1995.
Galioto F, Marconi V, Raggi M, Viaggi D. An Assessment of Disproportionate Costs in WFD: The Experience of Emilia-Romagna. Water. 2013; 5(4):1967-1995.
Galioto, Francesco; Marconi, Valentina; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide. 2013. "An Assessment of Disproportionate Costs in WFD: The Experience of Emilia-Romagna." Water 5, no. 4: 1967-1995.