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Effects of Water Velocity and Specific Surface Area on Filamentous Periphyton Biomass in an Artificial Stream Mesocosm
Environmental Engineering Research Division, Water Resource & Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang-Si 411-712, Republic of Korea
Construction Environment Division, Korea Land & Housing Corporation, Land & Housing Institute, Daejeon Metropolitan 305-731, Republic of Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Abstract: To evaluate the effects of water velocity and artificial substratum characteristics on the growth rate and biomass accumulation of periphyton, an artificial stream mesocosm experiment was conducted using alternative water sources collected from the Mangwall Stream (MW), the Han River (HR), and bank filtration water (BFW) from the Han River in the Republic of Korea. The measured concentrations of organic matter and inorganic nutrients in the MW were higher than in the HR and BFW. The surface of tile is relatively smooth and nonporous, whereas the surfaces of concrete and pebble are rough with numerous isolated pores in which filamentous periphyton become immobilized against hydrodynamic shear stress and mat tensile strength. Compared with the periphyton biomass of the HR and BFW, the peak biomass in the MW was significantly higher due to higher nutrient concentrations in the MW. Reasonable linear relationships (R2 ≥ 0.69) between water velocity and total periphyton biomass/growth rate were obtained, indicating that water velocities above critical values can cause a reduction in biomass accrual. In addition, reasonable relationships (R2 ≥ 0.58) between specific surface area and total periphyton biomass were obtained for the HR and BFW, indicating that an increase in the specific surface area of the substratum can lead to an increase in periphyton biomass in a nutrient-poor water body. Principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate that nutrient concentrations were the first dominant limiting factor for the growth and accumulation of periphyton, and water velocity and the specific surface area of the substratum were determined to be potential limiting factors. Consequently, the growth rate and biomass accumulation of periphyton were considered to be a complex function of nutrient concentrations, water velocities, and substratum characteristics.
Keywords: artificial substratum; artificial stream mesocosm experiment; filamentous periphyton; nutrient concentrations; principal components analysis (PCA); specific surface area; water velocity
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Ahn, C.H.; Song, H.M.; Lee, S.; Oh, J.H.; Ahn, H.; Park, J.-R.; Lee, J.M.; Joo, J.C. Effects of Water Velocity and Specific Surface Area on Filamentous Periphyton Biomass in an Artificial Stream Mesocosm. Water 2013, 5, 1723-1740.
Ahn CH, Song HM, Lee S, Oh JH, Ahn H, Park J-R, Lee JM, Joo JC. Effects of Water Velocity and Specific Surface Area on Filamentous Periphyton Biomass in an Artificial Stream Mesocosm. Water. 2013; 5(4):1723-1740.
Ahn, Chang H.; Song, Ho M.; Lee, Saeromi; Oh, Ju H.; Ahn, Hosang; Park, Jae-Roh; Lee, Jung M.; Joo, Jin C. 2013. "Effects of Water Velocity and Specific Surface Area on Filamentous Periphyton Biomass in an Artificial Stream Mesocosm." Water 5, no. 4: 1723-1740.