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Water, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 852-1456

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Open AccessArticle Framing Scenarios of Binational Water Policy with a Tool to Visualize, Quantify and Valuate Changes in Ecosystem Services
Water 2013, 5(3), 852-874; doi:10.3390/w5030852
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 1 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important
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In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important perennial surface water ecosystems in the region. An explicit understanding of the benefits of maintaining instream flow for present and future generations requires the ability to assess and understand the important trade-offs implicit in water-resource management decisions. In this paper, we outline an approach for modeling and visualizing impacts of management decisions in terms of rare terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, vegetation, surface water, groundwater recharge, real-estate values and socio-environmental vulnerable communities. We identify and quantify ecosystem services and model the potential reduction in effluent discharge to the U.S. that is under scrutiny by binational water policy makers and of concern to stakeholders. Results of service provisioning are presented, and implications for policy makers and resource managers are discussed. This paper presents a robust ecosystem services assessment of multiple scenarios of watershed management as a means to discern eco-hydrological responses and consider their potential values for future generations living in the borderlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of “Man-Made Hydrological Drought” on Plant Species Abundance in the Low-Flow Channel Downstream from the Matawin Dam, Quebec
Water 2013, 5(3), 875-892; doi:10.3390/w5030875
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interannual variability of streamflow affects the composition and species richness of vegetation in low-flow channels and alluvial plains. Although climate conditions in 2003 and 2004 were nearly identical, large differences in streamflow were observed downstream from the Matawin dam. These differences resulted
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The interannual variability of streamflow affects the composition and species richness of vegetation in low-flow channels and alluvial plains. Although climate conditions in 2003 and 2004 were nearly identical, large differences in streamflow were observed downstream from the Matawin dam. These differences resulted in numerous days without flow (no water release) during the growing period (May to August) in 2003, leading to man-made hydrological drought. While this drought had no effect on abiotic variables (grain-size distribution and nutrient concentrations in sediments), a significant decrease in the number of terrestrial species was observed in 2004 (year without drought) relative to 2003 (drought year) on three sand bars studied. This decrease is interpreted to result from prolonged submergence of the sites in 2004. Principal component analysis highlighted the effect of individual sites (first principal component) and of the interannual variability of streamflow (second component) on the number of species. The study suggests that, from a flow management standpoint, it is advisable to release enough water downstream from the dam during the growing season to prevent low-flow channel colonization by invasive terrestrial species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems
Water 2013, 5(3), 893-916; doi:10.3390/w5030893
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs) compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF) CWs were built to
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We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs) compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF) CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA) and scattered- (VB) oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA) and gravels (HB). The BOD, NO3, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg) as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg). The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Real-Time Forecast of Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in the Salmon Creek Watershed, New York State, Using an Online Prediction Tool
Water 2013, 5(3), 917-944; doi:10.3390/w5030917
Received: 23 April 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the northeastern United States (U.S.), watersheds and ecosystems are impacted by nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from agricultural activity. Where agricultural fields coincide with runoff-producing areas—so called hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA)—there is a potential risk of NPS contaminant transport to streams during rainfall
[...] Read more.
In the northeastern United States (U.S.), watersheds and ecosystems are impacted by nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from agricultural activity. Where agricultural fields coincide with runoff-producing areas—so called hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA)—there is a potential risk of NPS contaminant transport to streams during rainfall events. Although improvements have been made, water management practices implemented to reduce NPS pollution generally do not account for the highly variable, spatiotemporal dynamics of HSAs and the associated dynamics in NPS pollution risks. This paper presents a prototype for a web-based HSA prediction tool developed for the Salmon Creek watershed in upstate New York to assist producers and planners in quickly identifying areas at high risk of generating storm runoff. These predictions can be used to prioritize potentially polluting activities to parts of the landscape with low risks of generating storm runoff. The tool uses real-time measured data and 24–48 h weather forecasts so that locations and the timing of storm runoff generation are accurately predicted based on present-day and future moisture conditions. Analysis of HSA predictions in Salmon Creek show that 71% of the largest storm events between 2006 and 2009 were correctly predicted based on 48 h forecasted weather data. Real-time forecast of HSAs represents an important paradigm shift for the management of NPS in the northeastern U.S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States
Water 2013, 5(3), 945-971; doi:10.3390/w5030945
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial
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Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of a Small Southeastern River: A Pre-Dam Assessment
Water 2013, 5(3), 988-1005; doi:10.3390/w5030988
Received: 21 April 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
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Abstract
Riverine dams alter both the physical environment and water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments. In the United States, dam construction is on the decline and there is a growing trend for dam removal. The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed
[...] Read more.
Riverine dams alter both the physical environment and water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments. In the United States, dam construction is on the decline and there is a growing trend for dam removal. The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR), a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River. The purpose of the proposed reservoir was water supply, and while the permit application has been suspended, history shows that this or related projects are likely to arise in the future. This study collected data on nutrient quality seasonally (four times) from 12 sites in the LCR watershed from October 2007 to June 2008 in order to determine pre-dam conditions and to compare these data to historical and regional information. Historical and current nutrient concentrations were elevated throughout the watershed, in most cases above suggested criteria, and indicated that water quality of the river was and continues to be nutrient rich. A future reservoir at recent levels of water quality will likely be highly eutrophic, and anthropogenic influences will further stress this ecosystem and its water quality as the urban region expands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
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Open AccessArticle Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study
Water 2013, 5(3), 1006-1035; doi:10.3390/w5031006
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on
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Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
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Open AccessArticle Wetland Monitoring Using the Curvelet-Based Change Detection Method on Polarimetric SAR Imagery
Water 2013, 5(3), 1036-1051; doi:10.3390/w5031036
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (9880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One fundamental task in wetland monitoring is the regular mapping of (temporarily) flooded areas especially beneath vegetation. Due to the independence of weather and illumination conditions, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors could provide a suitable data base. Using polarimetric modes enables the identification
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One fundamental task in wetland monitoring is the regular mapping of (temporarily) flooded areas especially beneath vegetation. Due to the independence of weather and illumination conditions, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors could provide a suitable data base. Using polarimetric modes enables the identification of flooded vegetation by means of the typical double-bounce scattering. In this paper three decomposition techniques—Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden, and Normalized Kennaugh elements—are compared to each other in terms of identifying the flooding extent as well as its temporal change. The image comparison along the time series is performed with the help of the Curvelet-based Change Detection Method. The results indicate that the decomposition algorithm has a strong impact on the robustness and reliability of the change detection. The Normalized Kennaugh elements turn out to be the optimal representation for Curvelet-based change detection processing. Furthermore, the co-polarized channels (same transmit and receive polarization in horizontal (HH) and vertical (VV) direction respectively) appear to be sufficient for wetland monitoring so that dual-co-polarized imaging modes could be an alternative to conventional quad-polarized acquisitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding)
Open AccessArticle An Agent Based Model of Household Water Use
Water 2013, 5(3), 1082-1100; doi:10.3390/w5031082
Received: 18 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Households consume a significant fraction of total potable water production. Strategies to improve the efficiency of water use tend to emphasize technological interventions to reduce or shift water demand. Behavioral water use reduction strategies can also play an important role, but a flexible
[...] Read more.
Households consume a significant fraction of total potable water production. Strategies to improve the efficiency of water use tend to emphasize technological interventions to reduce or shift water demand. Behavioral water use reduction strategies can also play an important role, but a flexible framework for exploring the “what-ifs” has not been available. This paper introduces such a framework, presenting an agent-based model of household water-consuming behavior. The model simulates hourly water-using activities of household members within a rich technological and behavioral context, calibrated with appropriate data. Illustrative experiments compare the resulting water usage of U.S. and Dutch households and their associated water-using technologies, different household types (singles, families with children, and retired couples), different water metering regimes, and educational campaigns. All else equal, Dutch and metered households use less water. Retired households use more water because they are more often at home. Water-saving educational campaigns are effective for the part of the population that is receptive. Important interactions among these factors, both technological and behavioral, highlight the value of this framework for integrated analysis of the human-technology-water system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diagnosing Atmospheric Influences on the Interannual 18O/16O Variations in Western U.S. Precipitation
Water 2013, 5(3), 1116-1140; doi:10.3390/w5031116
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (15387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many climate proxies in geological archives are dependent on the isotopic content of precipitation (δ18Op), which over sub-annual timescales has been linked to temperature, condensation height, atmospheric circulation, and post-condensation exchanges in the western U.S. However, many proxies
[...] Read more.
Many climate proxies in geological archives are dependent on the isotopic content of precipitation (δ18Op), which over sub-annual timescales has been linked to temperature, condensation height, atmospheric circulation, and post-condensation exchanges in the western U.S. However, many proxies do not resolve temporal changes finer than interannual-scales. This study explores causes of the interannual variations in δ18Op within the western U.S. Simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM) revealed an amplifying influence of post-condensation exchanges (i.e., raindrop evaporation and vapor equilibration) on interannual δ18Op variations throughout the western U.S. Mid-latitude and subtropical vapor tagging simulations showed that the influence of moisture advection on δ18Op was relatively strong in the Pacific Northwest, but weak over the rest of the western U.S. The vapor tags correlated well with interannual variations in the 18O/16O composition of vapor, an indication that isotopes in vapor trace atmospheric circulation. However, vertical-tagging simulations revealed a strong influence of condensation height on δ18Op in California. In the interior of the western U.S., a strong temperature effect was found only after annual mean temperatures were weighted by monthly precipitation totals. These multiple influences on δ18Op complicate interpretations of western U.S. climate proxies that are derived from isotopes in precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tracers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Study on the Effect of Wastewater Storage in Septic Tank on E. coli Concentration in Summer
Water 2013, 5(3), 1141-1151; doi:10.3390/w5031141
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage
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On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage through the tank. In this study, which was conducted under the UGA young Scholar Program in summer of 2010, we examined the change in wastewater quality parameters during the passage of the wastewater through the tank and after its release into soil. We collected wastewater samples at the inlet and outlet of an experimental septic tank in addition to obtaining water samples from lysimeters below trenches where the drainpipes were buried. We report that E. coli concentration was higher by 100-fold in the septic tank effluent than influent wastewater samples, indicating the growth of E. coli inside the tank under typical Georgian summer weather. This is contrary to the assumption that E. coli cells do not grow outside their host and suggests that the microbial load of the wastewater is potentially enhanced during its storage in the tank. Electrical conductivity, pH and nitrogen were similar between the influent and effluent wastewater samples. E. coli and total coliform concentrations were mainly below detection in lysimeter samples, indicating the effectiveness of the soil in treating the wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings
Water 2013, 5(3), 1172-1193; doi:10.3390/w5031172
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 20 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of Web GIS-Based VFSMOD System with Three Modules for Effective Vegetative Filter Strip Design
Water 2013, 5(3), 1194-1210; doi:10.3390/w5031194
Received: 25 June 2013 / Revised: 26 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 7 August 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, Non-Point Source Pollution has been rising as a significant environmental issue. The sediment-laden water problem is causing serious impacts on river ecosystems not only in South Korea but also in most countries. The vegetative filter strip (VFS) has been thought
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In recent years, Non-Point Source Pollution has been rising as a significant environmental issue. The sediment-laden water problem is causing serious impacts on river ecosystems not only in South Korea but also in most countries. The vegetative filter strip (VFS) has been thought to be one of the most effective methods to reduce the transport of sediment to down-gradient area. However, the effective width of the VFS first needs to be determined before VFS installation in the field. To provide an easy-to-use interface with a scientific VFS modeling engine, the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system was developed in this study. The Web GIS-based VFSMOD uses the UH and VFSM executable programs from the VFSMOD-w model as core engines to simulate rainfall-runoff and sediment trapping. To provide soil information for a point of interest, the Google Map interface to the MapServer soil database system was developed using the Google Map API, Javascript, Perl/CGI, and Oracle DB programming. Three modules of the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were developed for various VFS designs under single storm, multiple storm, and long-term period scenarios. These modules in the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were applied to the study watershed in South Korea and these were proven as efficient tools for the VFS design for various purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness
Water 2013, 5(3), 1211-1225; doi:10.3390/w5031211
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both
[...] Read more.
Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API) manufacturing standards of pumps. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and the Scale Variability of Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study in the Loess Plateau of China
Water 2013, 5(3), 1226-1242; doi:10.3390/w5031226
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 20 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil moisture is an important factor for vegetation restoration and ecosystem sustainability in the Loess Plateau of China. The strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture is controlled by many environmental factors, including topography and land use. Moreover, the spatial patterns and soil hydrological
[...] Read more.
Soil moisture is an important factor for vegetation restoration and ecosystem sustainability in the Loess Plateau of China. The strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture is controlled by many environmental factors, including topography and land use. Moreover, the spatial patterns and soil hydrological processes depend on the scale of the site being investigated, which creates a challenge for soil moisture forecasts. This study was conducted at two scales: watershed and small watershed. The goal of the study was to investigate the spatial variability in soil moisture and the scale effect of its controlling factors, as well as to provide references for soil moisture forecasting and studies of scale transformation. We took samples at 76 sites in the Ansai watershed and at 34 sites in a typical small watershed within the Ansai watershed in August. Next, we measured the soil moisture in five equal layers from a depth of 0–100 cm and recorded the land use type, location on the hill slope, slope, aspect, elevation and vegetation cover at the sampling sites. The results indicated that soil moisture was negatively correlated with relative elevation, slope and vegetation cover. As depth increased, the correlations among slope, aspect and soil moisture increased. At the small watershed and watershed scales, the soil moisture was highest in cultivated land, followed by wild grassland and lowest in garden plots, woodland and shrubland. The soil moisture was distributed similarly with respect to the location on the hill slope at both scales: upper slope < middle-upper slope < middle slope < middle-lower slope < lower slope. The deep layer soil moisture value of the slope top was high, being close to the soil moisture in the lower slope. Therefore, wild grassland or low-density woodland should be prioritized for farmland recovery in the Ansai watershed, and the locations on the hill slope, slope and elevation should be combined to configure different mosaic patterns. For example, low-density woodland or wild grassland would be appropriate for sites with low soil moisture content, such as upper slope, high elevation and steep slope sites. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that the dominant factor controlling the spatial variability of soil moisture values varied at different scales. At the small watershed scale, the order of significance for the influence of environmental factors on soil moisture values was as follows: land use type, slope, relative elevation and vegetation cover. The order of significance at the watershed scale was also determined: location on the hill slope, vegetation cover, slope, relative elevation and sine of the aspect. This result indicated that the influence of different environmental factors on soil moisture variability was dependent on the scale. The forecasting capability of regression models for soil moisture decreases from the small watershed scale to the watershed scale. This study could provide a reference for relevant scale transformation studies and offer guidance for water resource management and vegetation restoration approaches on the Loess Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Impacts of Hydrologic Change on Sandbar Nesting Availability for Riverine Turtles in Eastern Minnesota, USA
Water 2013, 5(3), 1243-1261; doi:10.3390/w5031243
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
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Abstract
There have been significant increases in stream flow in many rivers of the Upper Midwestern United States since 1980. Increased summer flows may negatively impact ecological processes, including aquatic organisms’ life cycles. The smooth softshell (Apalone mutica) and wood turtle (
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There have been significant increases in stream flow in many rivers of the Upper Midwestern United States since 1980. Increased summer flows may negatively impact ecological processes, including aquatic organisms’ life cycles. The smooth softshell (Apalone mutica) and wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) are threatened by alteration of stream flow regime and other changes to river ecosystems in the Upper Midwest. We hypothesized that prolonged duration of high summer flows would reduce time available for nesting. We assessed hydrologic change using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration program and stream gauge data, characterized physical properties of sandbars, surveyed turtle nesting sites and assessed historical channel change using aerial photos in GIS on five Upper Midwest rivers. A river stage-sandbar area relationship was developed to determine the effect of prolonged summer flow duration on turtle nesting opportunity for the 1940–2009 time period. Suitable water levels have declined since 1980 in the agricultural watersheds of southern Minnesota likely delaying hatching and reducing survival, particularly for aquatic turtles such as A. mutica. In contrast to the agricultural watersheds, there was no significant change in the northern forested rivers’ stream flow and sandbar availability during the nesting season. Management to reduce summer stream flow in agricultural watersheds and protection of known nest sites could benefit threatened aquatic turtle populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Recovery of N and P from Urine by Struvite Precipitation Followed by Combined Stripping with Digester Sludge Liquid at Full Scale
Water 2013, 5(3), 1262-1278; doi:10.3390/w5031262
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 29 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel ammonia stripping method, including a CO2 pre-stripper was used to treat a mix of supernatant liquor from an anaerobic digester and urine in order to recycle nitrogen as ammonium sulfate at full-scale in the WWTP Kloten/Opfikon. Waste streams were not
[...] Read more.
A novel ammonia stripping method, including a CO2 pre-stripper was used to treat a mix of supernatant liquor from an anaerobic digester and urine in order to recycle nitrogen as ammonium sulfate at full-scale in the WWTP Kloten/Opfikon. Waste streams were not generated, since the ammonia was recovered as a marketable nitrogen fertilizer, turning a waste product into a valuable product. The efficiency of this system was increased by means of the addition of pre-treated urine collected separately at EAWAG building. The separation step was performed by the use of water free urinals and urine diversion flush toilets. An increase of 10% in the liquid flux with the addition of the urine translated into a 40% increase of the ammonia concentration in the inlet of the stripping unit. The achievement of these percentages generated a proportional increase in the fertilizer production. The urine pre-treatment was carried out by adding magnesium to produce a precipitate of struvite. The first experiments with the combined treatment showed the feasibility of the combination of the separation and pre-treatment steps. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Setting Target Measurement Uncertainty in Water Analysis
Water 2013, 5(3), 1279-1302; doi:10.3390/w5031279
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
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Abstract
Water is the most frequently and thoroughly characterised product due to the impact of the chemical composition of water of different sources or destinations on public health and on economy. The adequacy of water characterisation relies on measurement quality, which is a function
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Water is the most frequently and thoroughly characterised product due to the impact of the chemical composition of water of different sources or destinations on public health and on economy. The adequacy of water characterisation relies on measurement quality, which is a function of measurement traceability and uncertainty. In some analytical fields, target values of measurement performance parameters are set to ensure that the measurements quality is fit for the intended use. Nevertheless, frequently, these performance parameters do not allow the control of the magnitude of relevant components of measurement uncertainty. This work discusses the need for assessing fitness of the measurement for its intended use through the magnitude of uncertainty associated to the measurement value. The way this evaluation should be performed, when no guidelines are available, is also suggested. Target values of relevant performance parameters, results of interlaboratory tests, or the magnitude of trends of the measured quantity, are some types of information useful to define the maximum admissible uncertainty, i.e., target uncertainty. The information and algorithms used to define the target uncertainty are presented from the most suitable to the less likely to produce consensual values. Calculations are illustrated with application examples of different analytical fields. In this work, the way in which variability of uncertainty evaluation is taken into account when comparing estimated with target uncertainty is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Buffer Capacity, Ecosystem Feedbacks, and Seawater Chemistry under Global Change
Water 2013, 5(3), 1303-1325; doi:10.3390/w5031303
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 26 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
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Abstract
Ocean acidification (OA) results in reduced seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), but also reduced seawater buffer capacity. As buffer capacity decreases, diel variation in seawater chemistry increases. However, a variety of ecosystem feedbacks can modulate changes in both average
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Ocean acidification (OA) results in reduced seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), but also reduced seawater buffer capacity. As buffer capacity decreases, diel variation in seawater chemistry increases. However, a variety of ecosystem feedbacks can modulate changes in both average seawater chemistry and diel seawater chemistry variation. Here we model these effects for a coastal, reef flat ecosystem. We show that an increase in offshore pCO2 and temperature (to 900 µatm and + 3 °C) can increase diel pH variation by as much as a factor of 2.5 and can increase diel pCO2 variation by a factor of 4.6, depending on ecosystem feedbacks and seawater residence time. Importantly, these effects are different between day and night. With increasing seawater residence time and increasing feedback intensity, daytime seawater chemistry becomes more similar to present-day conditions while nighttime seawater chemistry becomes less similar to present-day conditions. Recent studies suggest that carbonate chemistry variation itself, independent of the average chemistry conditions, can have important effects on marine organisms and ecosystem processes. Better constraining ecosystem feedbacks under global change will improve projections of coastal water chemistry, but this study shows the importance of considering changes in both average carbonate chemistry and diel chemistry variation for organisms and ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Polydimethylsiloxane Rods for the Passive Sampling of Pesticides in Surface Waters
Water 2013, 5(3), 1366-1379; doi:10.3390/w5031366
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
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Abstract
In this work, the low cost synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods is described, and the performances of this new passive sampling device (in laboratory and in situ) are compared to the passive stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) for the monitoring of pesticides
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In this work, the low cost synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods is described, and the performances of this new passive sampling device (in laboratory and in situ) are compared to the passive stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) for the monitoring of pesticides from different classes (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) in surface waters. The influence of synthesis parameters of PDMS rods (i.e., heating temperature, heating time and relative amount of curing agent) were assessed regarding their efficiency for the extraction of the target pesticides through a Hadamard’s experimental design. This allowed the determination of the effect of the three parameters on the sorption of pesticides within four experiments. Thus, specific conditions were selected for the synthesis of the PDMS rods (heating at 80 °C for 2 h with 10% of curing agent). Laboratory experiments led to similar to lower extraction recovery in the PDMS rods in comparison with passive SBSE, depending on the pesticide. The in situ application demonstrated the efficiency of the PDMS rods for the passive sampling of the target pesticides in river water, although lower amounts of pesticides were recovered in comparison with passive SBSE. So, these very low cost PDMS rods could be used as an alternative to passive SBSE for large-scale monitoring campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft
Water 2013, 5(3), 1380-1392; doi:10.3390/w5031380
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
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Abstract
An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow
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An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach
Water 2013, 5(3), 1393-1418; doi:10.3390/w5031393
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
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Abstract
In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water
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In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement) based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory. Full article
Open AccessArticle Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM): Groundwater Risk Assessment Model for Wellfield Protection
Water 2013, 5(3), 1419-1439; doi:10.3390/w5031419
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A groundwater risk assessment was carried out for 30 potable water supply systems under a framework of protecting drinking water quality across South Australia. A semi-quantitative Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) was developed based on a “multi-barrier” approach using likelihood of release, contaminant
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A groundwater risk assessment was carried out for 30 potable water supply systems under a framework of protecting drinking water quality across South Australia. A semi-quantitative Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) was developed based on a “multi-barrier” approach using likelihood of release, contaminant pathway and consequence equation. Groundwater vulnerability and well integrity have been incorporated to the pathway component of the risk equation. The land use of the study basins varies from protected water reserves to heavily stocked grazing lands. Based on the risk assessment, 15 systems were considered as low risk, four as medium and 11 systems as at high risk. The GRAM risk levels were comparable with indicator bacteria—total coliform—detection. Most high risk systems were the result of poor well construction and casing corrosion rather than the land use. We carried out risk management actions, including changes to well designs and well operational practices, design to increase time of residence and setting the production zone below identified low permeable zones to provide additional barriers to contaminants. The highlight of the risk management element is the well integrity testing using down hole geophysical methods and camera views of the casing condition. Full article
Open AccessArticle Computing Air Demand Using the Takagi–Sugeno Model for Dam Outlets
Water 2013, 5(3), 1441-1456; doi:10.3390/w5031441
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed using the subtractive clustering technique to study the air demand in low-level outlet works. The ANFIS model was employed to calculate vent air discharge in different gate openings for an embankment dam. A hybrid learning
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An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed using the subtractive clustering technique to study the air demand in low-level outlet works. The ANFIS model was employed to calculate vent air discharge in different gate openings for an embankment dam. A hybrid learning algorithm obtained from combining back-propagation and least square estimate was adopted to identify linear and non-linear parameters in the ANFIS model. Empirical relationships based on the experimental information obtained from physical models were applied to 108 experimental data points to obtain more reliable evaluations. The feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models were also built using the same data to compare model performances with each other. The results indicated that the fuzzy rule-based model performed better than the LMNN and MLR models, in terms of the simulation performance criteria established, as the root mean square error, the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, the correlation coefficient and the Bias. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies
Water 2013, 5(3), 972-987; doi:10.3390/w5030972
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to present water and wastewater technologies used during the Minoan (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and Etruscan (ca. 800–100 BC) civilizations. The basic technologies considered are: water harvesting and distribution systems, cisterns, groundwater and wells as well
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The aim of this study is to present water and wastewater technologies used during the Minoan (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and Etruscan (ca. 800–100 BC) civilizations. The basic technologies considered are: water harvesting and distribution systems, cisterns, groundwater and wells as well as drainage and sewerage systems. Minoan water collection and distribution systems primarily consisted of cisterns and pipes. The Etruscans’ hydro-technology also consisted of cisterns and pipes but was developed for urban areas and included distinctions between public and private water use. The long-term sustainability of Minoan cisterns is evidenced by the fact that this technique is still practiced today in rural areas of Crete. In addition to cisterns, wells have been used in Crete since Neolithic times, and enjoyed wide-spread use during the Etruscan era. All the Minoan palaces applied strategies to dispose of water and wastewater with open terracotta or stone masonry-conduits, and stone masonry sewers; while, the drainage and sewerage systems developed by the Etruscans were based both on a coordinated and comprehensive planning of the slopes of drainage channels on the sides of streets as well as on a massive use of drainage tunnels. Full article
Open AccessReview Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review
Water 2013, 5(3), 1052-1081; doi:10.3390/w5031052
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary
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This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc.) as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation. Full article
Open AccessReview Synergistic Water-Treatment Reactors Using a TiO2-Modified Ti-Mesh Filter
Water 2013, 5(3), 1101-1115; doi:10.3390/w5031101
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent applications of a TiO2-modified Ti-mesh filter (TMiP™) for water purification are summarized with newly collected data including biological assays as well as sewage water treatment. The water purification reactors consist of the combination of a TMiP, a UV lamp,
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The recent applications of a TiO2-modified Ti-mesh filter (TMiP™) for water purification are summarized with newly collected data including biological assays as well as sewage water treatment. The water purification reactors consist of the combination of a TMiP, a UV lamp, an excimer VUV lamp, and an ozonation unit. The water purification abilities of the reactor were evaluated by decomposition of organic contaminants, inactivation of waterborne pathogens, and treatment efficiency for sewage water. The UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor disinfected E. coli in aqueous suspension in approximately 1 min completely, and also decreased the number of E. coli in sewage water in 15 min dramatically. The observed rate constants of 7.5 L/min and 1.3 L/min were calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis respectively. Although organic substances in sewage water were supposed to prevent the UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor from purifying water, the reactor reduced E. coli in sewage water continuously. On the other hand, although much higher efficiencies for decomposition of organic pollutants in water were achieved in the excimer/TMiP reactor, the disinfection activity of the reactor for waterborne pathogens was not as effective as the other reactors. The difference of efficiency between organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens in the excimer/TMiP reactor may be due to the size, the structure, and the decomposition mechanism of the organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens. These results show that a suitable system assisted by synergy of photocatalysts and other technologies such as ozonation has a huge potential as a practical wastewater purification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessReview Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters
Water 2013, 5(3), 1152-1171; doi:10.3390/w5031152
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 14 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 30 July 2013
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Abstract
The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical
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The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i) robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn); (ii) more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic); and (iii) methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb), nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Open AccessReview Hydrogeological Characteristics of Hellenic Aqueducts-Like Qanats
Water 2013, 5(3), 1326-1345; doi:10.3390/w5031326
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 23 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (7400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In ancient Hellas, water management began in the early Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and was related to the geomorphology, the geology, the topography, and the local climatic, hydrological, and socio-political conditions. Historical and archaeological evidences show that ancient Greeks had developed
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In ancient Hellas, water management began in the early Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and was related to the geomorphology, the geology, the topography, and the local climatic, hydrological, and socio-political conditions. Historical and archaeological evidences show that ancient Greeks had developed even qanat-related technologies since the Classical times. During democratic periods, the focus of water management was on sustainable small scale, safe, and cost effective management practices, and institutional arrangements, whereas in oligarchic periods, emphasis was on the construction of large-scale hydraulic projects, including aqueducts and/or qanats, mostly related to the public sectors. Aqueducts-like qanats are gently sloping, artificially constructed underground galleries, which bring groundwater from the mountainous area to the lowlands, where water is used, sometimes several kilometers away. It is worth noticing that no large-scale lifting techniques were available, and water was transferred from the source (usually a spring) by aqueducts (qanats) from a higher elevation to a lower level by gravity. Historically, the aqueduct-like qanat technology was developed by Persians in the middle of 1st Millennium BC, and spread towards the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. The expansion of Islam led to diffusion of qanats in Mediterranean countries (e.g., Spain, Italy, and Cyprus). Much of the population of Iran and other arid countries in North Africa and in Asia depend on water supply by aqueducts-like qanats, even today. This technology is characterized by its durability and sustainability, although an aqueduct-like qanat is expensive, both in construction and maintenance. It is pointed out that, the technique of tunneling was used during the Classical period in ancient Hellas. Since the well known tunnel at the island of Samos, Hellas, was designed and constructed by Eupalinos (ca. 530 BC), several underground tunnels (with and without well-like vertical shafts) in order to convey water from one location to another one located in a lower level were implemented in this country. Several aqueducts (qanat) paradigms (e.g., in Athens, on islands of Crete and Rhodes, and in the area of Serres in north country), which are in use even today, are presented and discussed. Overall, it seems that water-related problems of modern societies are not very different from those during antiquity. Full article
Open AccessReview Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States
Water 2013, 5(3), 1346-1365; doi:10.3390/w5031346
Received: 22 June 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of
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The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals have been observed to reenter the built water environment contained in raw drinking water, and they remain detectable in finished drinking water at concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. The greatest promises for minimizing pharmaceutical contamination include source control (for example, inputs from intentional flushing of medications for safe disposal, and sewer overflows), and improving efficiency of treatment facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Rex, J., et al. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas. Water 2013, 5, 443–461
Water 2013, 5(3), 1440; doi:10.3390/w5031440
Received: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
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Abstract The authors wish to acknowledge a funding agency in their recently published paper [1] and make the following correction. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)

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