Water 2013, 5(4), 1662-1676; doi:10.3390/w5041662
Article

Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages

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Received: 21 August 2013; in revised form: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: It has been said that Palermo is short of available water. However, nothing could be more wrong. Well-documented Arab sources and narrative chronicles reported an abundance of groundwater resources in Palermo Plain since the Middle Ages. The scarcity of sources and surface water in the Palermo Plain, compared to the groundwater abundance, led the inhabitants to use groundwater both for irrigation and domestic usage through a complex and sustainable hydraulic system. Vertical and horizontal (qanāts) wells, conveyed water towards gardens and public fountains making the Arabic Bal’harm (Palermo) a flourishing town. When visitors walk through the streets of Palermo’s historical center, among Arab ruins and Baroque architecture, they hardly imagine that there is a wide and varied cultural heritage of underground cavities hidden in the basements where water flows in intricate networks fed from a numerous springs. Only in recent years was a part of this system brought to light. Moreover, the city still has a wide and fascinating water distribution system consisting of irrigation basin (gebbie), ingenious hydraulic machines named senie, and distribution chessboard of irrigation (saje) and drinking water (catusi) canals. The medieval water collection and distribution systems and their various components in the Palermo Plain are reviewed together with the influence of the Arab water management on environment.
Keywords: history; Palermo; qanāt; ingruttati; gebbia; senia; saje
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lofrano, G.; Carotenuto, M.; Maffettone, R.; Todaro, P.; Sammataro, S.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K. Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages. Water 2013, 5, 1662-1676.

AMA Style

Lofrano G, Carotenuto M, Maffettone R, Todaro P, Sammataro S, Kalavrouziotis IK. Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages. Water. 2013; 5(4):1662-1676.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lofrano, Giusy; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Maffettone, Roberta; Todaro, Pietro; Sammataro, Silvia; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis K. 2013. "Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages." Water 5, no. 4: 1662-1676.


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