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Water, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2014), Pages 1-195

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Research

Open AccessArticle Humans and the Water Environment: The Need for Coordinated Data Collection
Water 2014, 6(1), 1-16; doi:10.3390/w6010001
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Efforts to observe humans in relation to nature over time and at large scale are few and disjointed in ways that impede progress in building scientific foundations for sustainability. Two water-oriented national-scale case studies highlight the challenges of integrating existing natural system [...] Read more.
Efforts to observe humans in relation to nature over time and at large scale are few and disjointed in ways that impede progress in building scientific foundations for sustainability. Two water-oriented national-scale case studies highlight the challenges of integrating existing natural system and social system data: one concerns the influence of environmental attitudes and water quality on water conservation efforts; the other explores relationships between environmental attitudes, water quality and recreation behavior. The case studies show that coupled research conducted at large scale can yield new insights, but uncoordinated data limit meaningful inference. We propose salient features of a coordinated observation program for water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Water Environment Management with a Focus on Water Recycling
Water 2014, 6(1), 17-31; doi:10.3390/w6010017
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 9 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An integrated water environment management system is necessary in improving water quality, properly allocating water resources, and supporting socio-economic development. Specifically, dynamic modeling can be an efficient approach to accomplish this system. This paper aims to construct a dynamic linear optimization model [...] Read more.
An integrated water environment management system is necessary in improving water quality, properly allocating water resources, and supporting socio-economic development. Specifically, dynamic modeling can be an efficient approach to accomplish this system. This paper aims to construct a dynamic linear optimization model to reflect a water environment management system which includes three sub-models with consideration of their interrelationships (a socio-economic model based on dynamic Input-Output model, a water resources cycle model, and a water pollutants flow model). Based on simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water utilization, water quality, and economic development under certain management targets, and propose an optimal plan. Taking Tianjin as a target area, this study utilized the model to analyze the potential of using reclaimed water to accomplish local water environment management and sustainable development plan while exploring the applicable approaches. This study indicates that the constructed water environment management system can be effective and easily adopted to assess water resources and environment while improving the trade-off between economic and environment development, as well as formulate regional development plan. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Version-7 TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Product during the Beijing Extreme Heavy Rainfall Event of 21 July 2012
Water 2014, 6(1), 32-44; doi:10.3390/w6010032
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The latest Version-7 (V7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products were released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in December of 2012. Their performance on different climatology, locations, and precipitation types is of great interest to [...] Read more.
The latest Version-7 (V7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products were released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in December of 2012. Their performance on different climatology, locations, and precipitation types is of great interest to the satellite-based precipitation community. This paper presents a study of TMPA precipitation products (3B42RT and 3B42V7) for an extreme precipitation event in Beijing and its adjacent regions (from 00:00 UTC 21 July 2012 to 00:00 UTC 22 July 2012). Measurements from a dense rain gauge network were used as the ground truth to evaluate the latest TMPA products. Results are summarized as follows. Compared to rain gauge measurements, both 3B42RT and 3B42V7 generally captured the rainfall spatial and temporal pattern, having a moderate spatial correlation coefficient (CC, 0.6) and high CC values (0.88) over the broader Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin (HBT) regions, but the rainfall peak is 6 h ahead of gauge observations. Overall, 3B42RT showed higher estimation than 3B42V7 over both HBT and Beijing. At the storm center, both 3B42RT and 3B42V7 presented a relatively large deviation from the temporal variation of rainfall and underestimated the storm by 29.02% and 36.07%, respectively. The current study suggests that the latest TMPA products still have limitations in terms of resolution and accuracy, especially for this type of extreme event within a latitude area on the edge of coverage of TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager. Therefore, TMPA users should be cautious when 3B42RT and 3B42V7 are used to model, monitor, and forecast both flooding hazards in the Beijing urban area and landslides in the mountainous west and north of Beijing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Inter-Event Time Definition Setting Procedure for Urban Drainage Systems
Water 2014, 6(1), 45-58; doi:10.3390/w6010045
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional inter-event time definition (IETD) estimate methodologies generally take into account only rainfall characteristics and not drainage basin characteristics. Therefore, they may not succeed in providing an appropriate value of IETD for any sort of application to the design of urban drainage [...] Read more.
Traditional inter-event time definition (IETD) estimate methodologies generally take into account only rainfall characteristics and not drainage basin characteristics. Therefore, they may not succeed in providing an appropriate value of IETD for any sort of application to the design of urban drainage system devices. To overcome this limitation, this study presents a method of IETD determination that considers basin characteristics. The suggested definition of IETD is the time period from the end of a rainfall event to the end of a direct runoff. The suggested method can identify the independent events that are suitable for the statistical analysis of the recorded rainfall. Using the suggested IETD, the IETD of the Joong-Rang drainage system was determined and the area-IETD relation curve was drawn. The resulting regression curve can be used to determinate the IETD of ungauged urban drainage systems, with areas ranging between 40 and 4400 ha. Using the regression curve, the IETDs and time distribution of the design rainfall for four drainage systems in Korea were determined and rainfall-runoff simulations were performed with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The results were compared with those from Huff's method which assumed a six-hour IETD. The peak flow rates obtained by the suggested method were 11%~15% greater than those obtained by Huff’s method. The suggested IETD determination method can identify independent events that are suitable for the statistical analysis of the recorded rainfall aimed at the design of urban drainage system devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Resistance of Two Mediterranean Cold-Water Coral Species to Low-pH Conditions
Water 2014, 6(1), 59-67; doi:10.3390/w6010059
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep-water ecosystems are characterized by relatively low carbonate concentration values and, due to ocean acidification (OA), these habitats might be among the first to be exposed to undersaturated conditions in the forthcoming years. However, until now, very few studies have been conducted [...] Read more.
Deep-water ecosystems are characterized by relatively low carbonate concentration values and, due to ocean acidification (OA), these habitats might be among the first to be exposed to undersaturated conditions in the forthcoming years. However, until now, very few studies have been conducted to test how cold-water coral (CWC) species react to such changes in the seawater chemistry. The present work aims to investigate the mid-term effect of decreased pH on calcification of the two branching CWC species most widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. No significant effects were observed in the skeletal growth rate, microdensity and porosity of both species after 6 months of exposure. However, while the calcification rate of M. oculata was similar for all colony fragments, a heterogeneous skeletal growth pattern was observed in L. pertusa, the younger nubbins showing higher growth rates than the older ones. A higher energy demand is expected in these young, fast-growing fragments and, therefore, a reduction in calcification might be noticed earlier during long-term exposure to acidified conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran
Water 2014, 6(1), 68-85; doi:10.3390/w6010068
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main aim of monitoring wells is to assess the conditions of groundwater quality in the aquifer system. An inappropriate distribution of sampling wells could produce insufficient or redundant data concerning groundwater quality. An optimal selection of representative monitoring well locations can [...] Read more.
The main aim of monitoring wells is to assess the conditions of groundwater quality in the aquifer system. An inappropriate distribution of sampling wells could produce insufficient or redundant data concerning groundwater quality. An optimal selection of representative monitoring well locations can be obtained by considering the natural and anthropogenic potential of pollution sources; the hydrogeological setting; and assessment of any existing data regarding monitoring networks. The main objective of this paper was to develop a new approach to identifying areas with a high risk of nitrate pollution for the Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. The indicator kriging method was applied to identify regions with a high probability of nitrate contamination using data obtained from 147 monitoring wells. The US-EPA DRASTIC method was then used in a GIS environment to assess groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination, and combined with data concerning the distribution of sources to produce a risk map. In the study area, around 3% of the total area has a strong probability of exceeding the nitrate threshold and a high–moderate risk of pollution, but is not covered adequately by sampling wells. However, the number of monitoring wells could be reduced in most parts of the study area to minimize redundant data and the cost of monitoring. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementation of Extended Statistical Entropy Analysis to the Effluent Quality Index of the Benchmarking Simulation Model No. 2
Water 2014, 6(1), 86-103; doi:10.3390/w6010086
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extended statistical entropy analysis (eSEA) is used to assess the nitrogen (N) removal performance of the wastewater treatment (WWT) simulation software, the Benchmarking Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM No. 2 ). Six simulations with three different types of wastewater are carried out, [...] Read more.
Extended statistical entropy analysis (eSEA) is used to assess the nitrogen (N) removal performance of the wastewater treatment (WWT) simulation software, the Benchmarking Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM No. 2 ). Six simulations with three different types of wastewater are carried out, which vary in the dissolved oxygen concentration (O2,diss.) during the aerobic treatment. N2O emissions generated during denitrification are included in the model. The N-removal performance is expressed as reduction in statistical entropy, ΔH, compared to the hypothetical reference situation of direct discharge of the wastewater into the river. The parameters chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD) and suspended solids (SS) are analogously expressed in terms of reduction of COD, BOD, and SS, compared to a direct discharge of the wastewater to the river (ΔEQrest). The cleaning performance is expressed as ΔEQnew, the weighted average of ΔH and ΔEQrest. The results show that ΔEQnew is a more comprehensive indicator of the cleaning performance because, in contrast to the traditional effluent quality index (EQ), it considers the characteristics of the wastewater, includes all N-compounds and their distribution in the effluent, the off-gas, and the sludge. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that realistically expectable N2O emissions have only a moderate impact on ΔEQnew. Full article
Open AccessArticle Leopold’s Arboretum Needs Upstream Water Treatment to Restore Wetlands Downstream
Water 2014, 6(1), 104-121; doi:10.3390/w6010104
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 21 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A case study has broad relevance for urban natural reserves. Aldo Leopold’s far-reaching vision to restore historical ecosystems at the UW-Madison Arboretum has been difficult to achieve despite ~80 years of restoration work. Wetlands (~1/4 of the 485-ha reserve) resist restoration, given [...] Read more.
A case study has broad relevance for urban natural reserves. Aldo Leopold’s far-reaching vision to restore historical ecosystems at the UW-Madison Arboretum has been difficult to achieve despite ~80 years of restoration work. Wetlands (~1/4 of the 485-ha reserve) resist restoration, given urban watersheds and inflows of low quality water. Current conditions favor aggressive invasive plants (cattails, reed canary grass, and buckthorn)—species that do not fulfill the 1934 vision. Today, urban runoff flows into remnant natural wetlands, degraded wetlands, the iconic Curtis Prairie, and constructed wetlands. Regulations for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) have led local municipalities to expand pre-existing sediment- and nutrient-trapping ponds from 5.67 ha (14 ac) of Arboretum land to 9.3 ha (23 ac) to protect downstream lakes. Both the runoff and the treatment facilities (with invasive plants) limit the Arboretum’s ability to achieve pre-settlement vegetation. Consistent with Leopold’s vision, we endorse Arboretum principles that urban runoff be restored to pre-settlement quality, and we recommend shifting efforts to reduce TMDLs to upstream lands in order to protect the Arboretum. Given that invasive species will persist, Leopold’s Arboretum should be rededicated to research, education, and restoration, plus sustainable management of its waters and wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Filter Reactor in the Treatment of Algae-Laden Water and the Contribution of Granular Sludge
Water 2014, 6(1), 122-138; doi:10.3390/w6010122
Received: 9 November 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the performance and stability of an anaerobic baffled filter reactor in the treatment of algae-laden water from Taihu Lake at several organic loading rates. The study also evaluated the capability of soft filler to train granule sludge and improve [...] Read more.
This study investigated the performance and stability of an anaerobic baffled filter reactor in the treatment of algae-laden water from Taihu Lake at several organic loading rates. The study also evaluated the capability of soft filler to train granule sludge and improve the anaerobic environment and sludge activity in the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), thereby enhancing the treatment efficiency. The ABR consisted of five rectangular compartments, each of which was 120 cm long, 80 cm wide, 80 cm high, and packed with soft filler. The anaerobic baffled filter reactor was found to be an efficient reactor configuration for the treatment of algae-laden water. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3d) and an ambient temperature of 30 °C; under these conditions, the COD removal efficiency was 80% and the biogas production rate was 293 mL/(Ld). Moreover, the soft filler increased the biomass retention time and decreased the rate at which solids were washed out from the reactor, promoting an improved spatial distribution of the microbial communities within the compartments. Methanoregula, Methanobacteriaceae, Methanosaeta, Methanoculleu, and Thermogymnomonas were the dominant archaeal species in each compartment during an operational period of approximately 100 days. The protease activity in the reactor decreased longitudinally down the reactor from Compartments 1 to 5, whereas the activity of coenzyme F420 increased. The soft filler played a key role in successfully treating algae-laden water with the anaerobic baffled filter reactor. Full article
Open AccessArticle One-Year Surveillance of the Chemical and Microbial Quality of Drinking Water Shuttled to the Eolian Islands
Water 2014, 6(1), 139-149; doi:10.3390/w6010139
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the chemical and biological characteristics of drinking water shuttled from the main land (Naples, Campania, Italy) to the Eolian islands (situated off the north-eastern coast of Sicily). The data obtained from a one year surveillance program, (January to December, [...] Read more.
This work presents the chemical and biological characteristics of drinking water shuttled from the main land (Naples, Campania, Italy) to the Eolian islands (situated off the north-eastern coast of Sicily). The data obtained from a one year surveillance program, (January to December, 2012) indicate that the quality of the water delivered to the islands meets the drinking water quality standard year-round. During summer, when requests for drinking water increase with the increase of the islands population, the quality of the shipped water decreases, most likely due to the use of older vessels in addition to those used during the rest of the year. The results suggest an implementation of a monitoring program at the point-of-use in order to identify potential sources of contamination early in shipped drinking water and, therefore, to manage the potential risk of waterborne illness more effectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System
Water 2014, 6(1), 150-180; doi:10.3390/w6010150
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly), using automated in situ [...] Read more.
This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly), using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New System for Households in Spain to Evaluate and Reduce Their Water Consumption
Water 2014, 6(1), 181-195; doi:10.3390/w6010181
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to describe a developed model and its corresponding application, known as System to Evaluate the Water Consumption at Home (SEWAT). The aim is to create a new model to evaluate the efficiency of water consumption. Thanks [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to describe a developed model and its corresponding application, known as System to Evaluate the Water Consumption at Home (SEWAT). The aim is to create a new model to evaluate the efficiency of water consumption. Thanks to the input of the water bills by users, the model allows them to check if water consumption is efficient, in order to give them an opportunity to evaluate their water usage. To succeed in it, several researches were tracked in order to establish consumer trends and to identify the most efficient value for this magnitude. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to obtain updated values to validate information from previous studies. However, the main aim of this model is to use the resources efficiently, so it has to be useful accordingly. Therefore, after the evaluation, the application has a section with recommendations for the users to reduce their water consumption through a range of different indications. This section is divided into four: bathroom, kitchen, new appliance and reusing water. Each section shows the expected benefits if the users follow the recommended options. The main result is a unique application in Spain, which includes a system of evaluation, comparison and a section of recommendations for the users. Eventually, the model will have a promising outcome, because it surely will change the awareness of citizens about this subject. Full article

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