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Water 2013, 5(4), 2080-2093; doi:10.3390/w5042080
Article

Hydraulic Features of Flow through Emergent Bending Aquatic Vegetation in the Riparian Zone

1,*  and 2
Received: 29 September 2013; in revised form: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
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Abstract: Vegetation in riparian zones has a significant influence on resistance, velocity distribution and turbulence intensity. This study experimentally investigated the effect of emergent bending riparian zone vegetation on the flow. The results showed that the frond and stem parts of Acorus calami had different influences on hydraulic features and that the relative depth ratio of water depth h to stem height hs was a key determinant of those influences. Manning coefficient n varied greatly with the variation of vegetation densities, relative depth ratio of water depth h to stem height hs, Re and Fr. Manning coefficient n increased with increasing vegetation density, particularly in cases when h/hs > 1. The velocity distributions did not follow logarithmic profiles, but they instead exhibited double logarithmic profiles. In addition, vegetation characteristics were shown to influence the height of maximum velocity. The position of maximum velocity is further away from the bed in cases with denser vegetation distribution. Finally, turbulence intensity showed more significant variation in the stem part and peaked near the middle of the stem, at z/hs = 0.5, where z was the distance from the bottom.
Keywords: riparian zone; flexible aquatic vegetation; ecohydraulics; Manning coefficient n; vertical velocity; turbulence riparian zone; flexible aquatic vegetation; ecohydraulics; Manning coefficient n; vertical velocity; turbulence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, J.; Nehal, L. Hydraulic Features of Flow through Emergent Bending Aquatic Vegetation in the Riparian Zone. Water 2013, 5, 2080-2093.

AMA Style

Xia J, Nehal L. Hydraulic Features of Flow through Emergent Bending Aquatic Vegetation in the Riparian Zone. Water. 2013; 5(4):2080-2093.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xia, Jihong; Nehal, Launia. 2013. "Hydraulic Features of Flow through Emergent Bending Aquatic Vegetation in the Riparian Zone." Water 5, no. 4: 2080-2093.


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