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Monitoring Urban Wastewaters’ Characteristics by Visible and Short Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, University Miguel Hernández, Av Universidad s/n Edificio Alcudia, Elche 03202, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2013; in revised form: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Abstract: On-line monitoring of wastewater parameters is a major scientific and technical challenge because of the great variability of wastewater characteristics and the extreme physical-chemical conditions that endure the sensors. Wastewater treatment plant managers require fast and reliable information about the input sewage and the operation of the different treatment stages. There is a great need for the development of sensors for the continuous monitoring of wastewater parameters. In this sense, several optical systems have been evaluated. This article presents an experimental laboratory-based approach to quantify commonly employed urban wastewater parameters, namely biochemical oxygen demand in five days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and the ratio BOD5:COD, with a visible and short wave near infrared (V/SW-NIR) spectrometer (400–1000 nm). Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were developed in order to quantify the wastewater parameters with the recorded spectra. PLSR models were developed for the full spectral range and also for the visible and near infrared spectral ranges separately. Good PLSR models were obtained with the visible spectral range for BOD5 (RER = 9.64), COD (RER = 10.88), and with the full spectral range for the TSS (RER = 9.67). The results of this study show that V/SW-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable technique for on-line monitoring of wastewater parameters.
Keywords: wastewater; spectroscopy; biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; total suspended solids
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Melendez-Pastor, I.; Almendro-Candel, M.B.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Lillo, M.G.; Hernández, E.I. Monitoring Urban Wastewaters’ Characteristics by Visible and Short Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Water 2013, 5, 2026-2036.
Melendez-Pastor I, Almendro-Candel MB, Navarro-Pedreño J, Gómez I, Lillo MG, Hernández EI. Monitoring Urban Wastewaters’ Characteristics by Visible and Short Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Water. 2013; 5(4):2026-2036.
Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Lillo, Mariano G.; Hernández, Encarni I. 2013. "Monitoring Urban Wastewaters’ Characteristics by Visible and Short Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy." Water 5, no. 4: 2026-2036.