Water 2013, 5(4), 2094-2115; doi:10.3390/w5042094
Review

Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW)

1 Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire de l'État Solide, UMR CNRS/UdS 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Institut Le Bel, 4, rue Blaise Pascal, CS 90032, Strasbourg 67081, France 2 Institut de Physique Biologique, Faculté de Médecine, 4, rue Kirschleger, Strasbourg Cedex F 67085, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2013; in revised form: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [958 KB, uploaded 16 December 2013 18:28 CET]
Abstract: The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included with the device recommends the consumption of 1–1.5 L of water per day, not only for gastro-intestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. Academic research in Japan on this subject has been undergoing since 1990 only but has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen that eliminates the free radical HO• in vivo. In addition, it was demonstrated that degradation of the electrodes during functioning of the device releases very reactive nanoparticles of platinum, the toxicity of which has not yet been clearly proven. This report recommends alerting health authorities of the uncontrolled availability of these devices used as health products, but which generate drug substances and should therefore be sold according to regulatory requirements.
Keywords: alkaline reduced water; electrolysis; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; platinum nanoparticles; gastro-intestinal complaints; cancer; diabetes; inflammation; immunomodulation

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Henry, M.; Chambron, J. Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW). Water 2013, 5, 2094-2115.

AMA Style

Henry M, Chambron J. Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW). Water. 2013; 5(4):2094-2115.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henry, Marc; Chambron, Jacques. 2013. "Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW)." Water 5, no. 4: 2094-2115.

Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert