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Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming
Water 2013, 5(4), 1890-1915; doi:10.3390/w5041890
Article

Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

1,2,3,* , 4
,
4
,
3,5
,
4,6
 and
7
1 Faculty for Biosciences, Fisheries, and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway,Tromsø 9037, Norway 2 Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø 9296, Norway 3 Akvaplan-niva AS, Fram Centre, Tromsø 9296, Norway 4 Department of Global Change Research, Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDEA, UIB-CSIC), Esporles 07190, Spain 5 University Centre on Svalbard (UNIS), Longyearbyen 9171, Norway 6 The UWA Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Australia 7 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences – Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad 452 96, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract

Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH) and 7.6 (2100 level) by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm). Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C) using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C) and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71%) and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%), possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70%) and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%). We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.
Keywords: climate change; experimental study; increased pCO2; larval development; meta-analysis; pH; sperm kinetics; temperature climate change; experimental study; increased pCO2; larval development; meta-analysis; pH; sperm kinetics; temperature
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Vihtakari, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Holding, J.; Renaud, P.E.; Duarte, C.M.; Havenhand, J.N. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Water 2013, 5, 1890-1915.

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