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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 3981-4639

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Open AccessArticle Nutrients Intake Is Associated with DNA Methylation of Candidate Inflammatory Genes in a Population of Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4625-4639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104625
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNFα, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNFα, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible associations between gene methylation and clinical blood parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride and homocysteine levels. We employed validated methods to assess anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, as well as pyrosequencing to evaluate DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in 165 overweight/obese subjects. There was no association between body mass index and DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in this group of subjects. Positive associations were observed between TNFα methylation and blood levels of LDL-C (β = 0.447, p = 0.002), TC/HDL-C (β = 0.467, p = 0.001) and LDL-C/HDL-C (β = 0.445, p = 0.002), as well as between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of β-carotene (β = 0.088, p = 0.051) and carotenoids (β = 0.083, p = 0.029). TNFα methylation showed negative associations with dietary intakes of cholesterol (β = −0.278, p = 0.048), folic acid (β = −0.339, p = 0.012), β-carotene (β = −0.332, p = 0.045), carotenoids (β = −0.331, p = 0.015) and retinol (β = −0.360, p = 0.008). These results suggest a complex relationship among nutrient intake, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4610-4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104610
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for
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The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4591-4609; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104591
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress,
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Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
Open AccessReview The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4552-4590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104552
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction.
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Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%). Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA) diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
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Open AccessReview Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4531-4551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104531
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory
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Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4520-4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104520
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 16 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected
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We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4491-4519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104491
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 7 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however
[...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Severe Periodontitis Is Inversely Associated with Coffee Consumption in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4476-4490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104476
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and
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This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and underwent periodontal examination. Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of moderate/severe periodontitis was correlated with presence of hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.99, p < 0.05), smoking (former, OR = 5.63, p < 0.01; current, OR = 6.81, p = 0.076), number of teeth present (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001), plaque control record ≥20% (OR = 1.88, p < 0.05), and duration of maintenance phase (OR = 1.07, p < 0.01). On the other hand, presence of severe periodontitis was correlated with smoking (former, OR = 1.35, p = 0.501; current, OR = 3.98, p < 0.05), coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day, OR = 0.55, p < 0.05), number of teeth present (OR = 0.95, p < 0.05), and bleeding on probing ≥ 20% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001). There appears to be an inverse association between coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day) and prevalence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. Full article
Open AccessLetter A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4472-4475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104472
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) issues dietary recommendations on the request of the U.S. and Canadian governments. [...] Full article
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acid Metabolism in Carriers of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele: Is It Contributing to Higher Risk of Cognitive Decline and Coronary Heart Disease?
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4452-4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104452
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and
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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and ε4. Carrying an APOE4 allele is recognised as a genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Consuming fatty fish, rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC omega-3), seems to be associated with risk reduction of developing LOAD and CHD but this link seems not to hold in APOE4 carriers, at least in LOAD. In CHD trials, APOE4 carriers supplemented with LC omega-3 were categorized as differential responders to the treatment with regards to CHD risk markers. This is potentially because fatty acid metabolism is disturbed in APOE4 carriers compared to the non-carriers. More specifically, homeostasis of LC omega-3 is disrupted in carriers of APOE4 allele and this is potentially because they β-oxidize more LC omega-3 than the non-carriers. Therefore, there is a potential shift in fatty acid selection for β-oxidation towards LC omega-3 which are usually highly preserved for incorporation into cell membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4434-4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104434
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women.
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The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Discretionary Fortification—A Public Health Perspective
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4421-4433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104421
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination
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‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination of novel beverages sold in Toronto supermarkets revealed added nutrients for which there is little or no evidence of inadequacy in the population. This is consistent with the variable effects of manufacturer-driven fortification on nutrient adequacy observed in the US. Nutrient intakes in excess of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels are now observed in the context of supplement use and high levels of consumption of fortified foods. Expanding discretionary fortification can only increase nutrient exposures, but any health risks associated with chronically high nutrient loads from fortification and supplementation remain to be discovered. Regulatory bodies are focused on the establishment of safe levels of nutrient addition, but their estimation procedures are fraught with untested assumptions and data limitations. The task of determining the benefits of discretionary fortification is being left to consumers, but the nutrition information available to them is insufficient to allow for differentiation of potentially beneficial fortification from gratuitous nutrient additions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)
Open AccessCase Report Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4404-4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104404
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac
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Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4389-4403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104389
Received: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Its Relationship with Autonomic Dysfunction Using Time- and Frequency-Domain Parameters of Heart Rate Variability in Korean Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4373-4388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104373
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and hypovitaminosis D are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on HRV. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and HRV indices using
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and hypovitaminosis D are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on HRV. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and HRV indices using 5-min R-R interval recordings with an automatic three-channel electrocardiography in healthy subjects (103 males and 73 females). Standard deviation of N-N interval (SDNN), square root of mean squared differences of successive N-N intervals (RMSSD), total power (TP), very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) were reported. The mean age of subjects was 55.3 ± 11.3 years and the mean 25(OH)D level was 21.2 ± 9.9 ng/mL. In a multiple linear regression model, 25(OH)D was positively correlated with SDNN (β = 0.240, p < 0.002), and LF (β = 0.144, p = 0.044). Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 15 ng/mL) was associated with decreased SDNN (<30 m/s) (OR, 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–7.14; p = 0.014) after adjusting for covariates. We found that lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower HRV, suggesting a possible explanation for the higher risk of CVD in populations with hypovitaminosis D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
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