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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 3981-4639

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Open AccessArticle Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 3981-4001; doi:10.3390/nu6103981
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (4352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA
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This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4032-4042; doi:10.3390/nu6104032
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve
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Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J) score: <28) participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years). The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03). This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Perioperative Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Leukotriene B4 and Leukotriene B5 Production by Stimulated Neutrophils in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4043-4057; doi:10.3390/nu6104043
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) may have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in surgical patients. In a randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled trial, 148 patients referred for elective colorectal cancer surgery received an n-3 FA-enriched oral nutritional supplement (ONS) providing 2.0
[...] Read more.
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) may have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in surgical patients. In a randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled trial, 148 patients referred for elective colorectal cancer surgery received an n-3 FA-enriched oral nutritional supplement (ONS) providing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day or a standard ONS for seven days before surgery. On the day of operation, there was a significant increase in the production of leukotriene B5 (LTB5) (p < 0.01) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) (p < 0.01), a significant decrease in the production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (p < 0.01) and a trend for a decrease in the production of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) (p < 0.1) from stimulated neutrophils in the active group compared with controls. There was no association between LTB4 values and postoperative complications. In conclusion, oral n-3 FA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in surgical patients, without reducing the risk of postoperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4073-4092; doi:10.3390/nu6104073
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 3 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes.
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter 1 and Glucose Transporter 2 in the Absorption of Cyanidin-3-O-β-Glucoside in Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4165-4177; doi:10.3390/nu6104165
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O
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Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Cy-3-G transport was assessed by measuring the absorptive and efflux direction. Inhibition studies were conducted using the pharmacological agents, phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), or phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The results showed that phloridzin and phloretin significantly inhibited the absorption of Cy-3-G. In addition, Caco-2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for SGLT1 or GLUT2 showed significantly decreased Cy-3-G absorption. These siRNA transfected cells also showed a significantly decreased rate of transport of Cy-3-G compared with the control group. These findings suggest that Cy-3-G absorption is dependent on the activities of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine and that SGLT1 and GLUT2 could be a limiting step for the bioavailability of Cy-3-G. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4178-4190; doi:10.3390/nu6104178
Received: 19 July 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity
[...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, −1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4191-4199; doi:10.3390/nu6104191
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors.
[...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Protein Content and Methyl Donors in Maternal Diet Interact to Influence the Proliferation Rate and Cell Fate of Neural Stem Cells in Rat Hippocampus
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4200-4217; doi:10.3390/nu6104200
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal diet during pregnancy and early postnatal life influences the setting up of normal physiological functions in the offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and may mediate gene/environment interactions. We showed here that high methyl donors associated with normal protein
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Maternal diet during pregnancy and early postnatal life influences the setting up of normal physiological functions in the offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and may mediate gene/environment interactions. We showed here that high methyl donors associated with normal protein content in maternal diet increased the in vitro proliferation rate of neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from rat E19 fetuses. Gene expression on whole hippocampi at weaning confirmed this effect as evidenced by the higher expression of the Nestin and Igf2 genes, suggesting a higher amount of undifferentiated precursor cells. Additionally, protein restriction reduced the expression of the insulin receptor gene, which is essential to the action of IGFII. Inhibition of DNA methylation in neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific Gfap gene and decreased the expression of the neuron-specific Dcx gene, suggesting an impact on cell differentiation. Our data suggest a complex interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet that influence the expression of major growth factors and their receptors and therefore impact the proliferation and differentiation capacities of neural stem cells, either through external hormone signals or internal genomic regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
Open AccessArticle Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4320-4337; doi:10.3390/nu6104320
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not
[...] Read more.
Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Psycho-Genetic Study of Hedonic Responsiveness in Relation to “Food Addiction”
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4338-4353; doi:10.3390/nu6104338
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 1 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While food addiction has no formally-recognized definition, it is typically operationalized according to the diagnostic principles established by the Yale Food Addiction Scale—an inventory based on the symptom criteria for substance dependence in the DSM-IV. Currently, there is little biologically-based research investigating
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While food addiction has no formally-recognized definition, it is typically operationalized according to the diagnostic principles established by the Yale Food Addiction Scale—an inventory based on the symptom criteria for substance dependence in the DSM-IV. Currently, there is little biologically-based research investigating the risk factors for food addiction. What does exist has focused almost exclusively on dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. While brain opioid signaling has also been strongly implicated in the control of food intake, there is no research examining this neural circuitry in the association with food addiction. The purpose of the study was therefore to test a model predicting that a stronger activation potential of opioid circuitry-as indicated by the functional A118G marker of the mu-opioid receptor gene-would serve as an indirect risk factor for food addiction via a heightened hedonic responsiveness to palatable food. Results confirmed these relationships. In addition, our findings that the food-addiction group had significantly higher levels of hedonic responsiveness to food suggests that this bio-behavioral trait may foster a proneness to overeating, to episodes of binge eating, and ultimately to a compulsive and addictive pattern of food intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
Open AccessCommunication Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Extract on Ovariectomized Rats and Its Oral Toxicity in Rats
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4362-4372; doi:10.3390/nu6104362
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 6 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an
[...] Read more.
Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis, serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment-related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism. Full article
Open AccessArticle 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Its Relationship with Autonomic Dysfunction Using Time- and Frequency-Domain Parameters of Heart Rate Variability in Korean Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4373-4388; doi:10.3390/nu6104373
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and hypovitaminosis D are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on HRV. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and HRV indices using
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and hypovitaminosis D are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on HRV. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and HRV indices using 5-min R-R interval recordings with an automatic three-channel electrocardiography in healthy subjects (103 males and 73 females). Standard deviation of N-N interval (SDNN), square root of mean squared differences of successive N-N intervals (RMSSD), total power (TP), very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) were reported. The mean age of subjects was 55.3 ± 11.3 years and the mean 25(OH)D level was 21.2 ± 9.9 ng/mL. In a multiple linear regression model, 25(OH)D was positively correlated with SDNN (β = 0.240, p < 0.002), and LF (β = 0.144, p = 0.044). Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 15 ng/mL) was associated with decreased SDNN (<30 m/s) (OR, 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–7.14; p = 0.014) after adjusting for covariates. We found that lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower HRV, suggesting a possible explanation for the higher risk of CVD in populations with hypovitaminosis D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
Open AccessArticle Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4389-4403; doi:10.3390/nu6104389
Received: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4434-4451; doi:10.3390/nu6104434
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women.
[...] Read more.
The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Severe Periodontitis Is Inversely Associated with Coffee Consumption in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4476-4490; doi:10.3390/nu6104476
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and
[...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and underwent periodontal examination. Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of moderate/severe periodontitis was correlated with presence of hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.99, p < 0.05), smoking (former, OR = 5.63, p < 0.01; current, OR = 6.81, p = 0.076), number of teeth present (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001), plaque control record ≥20% (OR = 1.88, p < 0.05), and duration of maintenance phase (OR = 1.07, p < 0.01). On the other hand, presence of severe periodontitis was correlated with smoking (former, OR = 1.35, p = 0.501; current, OR = 3.98, p < 0.05), coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day, OR = 0.55, p < 0.05), number of teeth present (OR = 0.95, p < 0.05), and bleeding on probing ≥ 20% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001). There appears to be an inverse association between coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day) and prevalence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4520-4530; doi:10.3390/nu6104520
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 16 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected
[...] Read more.
We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4610-4624; doi:10.3390/nu6104610
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for
[...] Read more.
The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Nutrients Intake Is Associated with DNA Methylation of Candidate Inflammatory Genes in a Population of Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4625-4639; doi:10.3390/nu6104625
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNFα, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNFα, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible associations between gene methylation and clinical blood parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride and homocysteine levels. We employed validated methods to assess anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, as well as pyrosequencing to evaluate DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in 165 overweight/obese subjects. There was no association between body mass index and DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in this group of subjects. Positive associations were observed between TNFα methylation and blood levels of LDL-C (β = 0.447, p = 0.002), TC/HDL-C (β = 0.467, p = 0.001) and LDL-C/HDL-C (β = 0.445, p = 0.002), as well as between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of β-carotene (β = 0.088, p = 0.051) and carotenoids (β = 0.083, p = 0.029). TNFα methylation showed negative associations with dietary intakes of cholesterol (β = −0.278, p = 0.048), folic acid (β = −0.339, p = 0.012), β-carotene (β = −0.332, p = 0.045), carotenoids (β = −0.331, p = 0.015) and retinol (β = −0.360, p = 0.008). These results suggest a complex relationship among nutrient intake, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4058-4072; doi:10.3390/nu6104058
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 3 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the
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Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Influences on Age-Related Frailty)
Open AccessReview Identification, Prevention and Treatment of Iron Deficiency during the First 1000 Days
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4093-4114; doi:10.3390/nu6104093
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron deficiency is a global problem across the life course, but infants and their mothers are especially vulnerable to both the development and the consequences of iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy can predispose offspring to the development of iron deficiency during
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Iron deficiency is a global problem across the life course, but infants and their mothers are especially vulnerable to both the development and the consequences of iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy can predispose offspring to the development of iron deficiency during infancy, with potentially lifelong sequelae. This review explores iron status throughout these “first 1000 days” from pregnancy through two years of age, covering the role of iron and the epidemiology of iron deficiency, as well as its consequences, identification, interventions and remaining research gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
Open AccessReview Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4218-4272; doi:10.3390/nu6104218
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis
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Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Inhibitors in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4273-4301; doi:10.3390/nu6104273
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 6 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone
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Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
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Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: A Proposal for Italian People
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4302-4316; doi:10.3390/nu6104302
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the
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Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the nutritional characteristics of this food are analyzed in relation to its protective effects on coronary heart disease, metabolic diseases and cancer. According to our traditions, cultural heritage and scientific evidence, we propose that only cereal foods with low glycemic index (GI) and rich in fiber have to be placed at the base of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, whereas refined grains and high GI starchy foods have to be sited at the top. Full article
Open AccessReview Discretionary Fortification—A Public Health Perspective
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4421-4433; doi:10.3390/nu6104421
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination
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‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination of novel beverages sold in Toronto supermarkets revealed added nutrients for which there is little or no evidence of inadequacy in the population. This is consistent with the variable effects of manufacturer-driven fortification on nutrient adequacy observed in the US. Nutrient intakes in excess of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels are now observed in the context of supplement use and high levels of consumption of fortified foods. Expanding discretionary fortification can only increase nutrient exposures, but any health risks associated with chronically high nutrient loads from fortification and supplementation remain to be discovered. Regulatory bodies are focused on the establishment of safe levels of nutrient addition, but their estimation procedures are fraught with untested assumptions and data limitations. The task of determining the benefits of discretionary fortification is being left to consumers, but the nutrition information available to them is insufficient to allow for differentiation of potentially beneficial fortification from gratuitous nutrient additions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Fatty Acid Metabolism in Carriers of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele: Is It Contributing to Higher Risk of Cognitive Decline and Coronary Heart Disease?
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4452-4471; doi:10.3390/nu6104452
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and
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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and ε4. Carrying an APOE4 allele is recognised as a genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Consuming fatty fish, rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC omega-3), seems to be associated with risk reduction of developing LOAD and CHD but this link seems not to hold in APOE4 carriers, at least in LOAD. In CHD trials, APOE4 carriers supplemented with LC omega-3 were categorized as differential responders to the treatment with regards to CHD risk markers. This is potentially because fatty acid metabolism is disturbed in APOE4 carriers compared to the non-carriers. More specifically, homeostasis of LC omega-3 is disrupted in carriers of APOE4 allele and this is potentially because they β-oxidize more LC omega-3 than the non-carriers. Therefore, there is a potential shift in fatty acid selection for β-oxidation towards LC omega-3 which are usually highly preserved for incorporation into cell membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessReview The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4491-4519; doi:10.3390/nu6104491
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 7 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however
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Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4531-4551; doi:10.3390/nu6104531
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory
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Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessReview The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4552-4590; doi:10.3390/nu6104552
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction.
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Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%). Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA) diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
Open AccessReview Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4591-4609; doi:10.3390/nu6104591
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress,
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Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)

Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4002-4031; doi:10.3390/nu6104002
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity
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Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p < 0.001). There were differences between tissues on the effects of selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p < 0.001); however, there was no evidence in the data of differences between animal species (p = 0.95). The interactions between dose and tissue, animal species and form were significant (p < 0.001). Tissues particularly sensitive to changes in selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
Open AccessMeeting Report Report on the Fifth International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) Held in Thailand, 6–8th May, 2014
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4115-4164; doi:10.3390/nu6104115
Received: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) was held at the Moevenpick Resort and Spa Karon Beach, Phuket, Thailand on 6–8 May 2014. NATPRO was established in 2005 by Professor Maitree Suttajit, Mahasarakham University with the aim
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The 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) was held at the Moevenpick Resort and Spa Karon Beach, Phuket, Thailand on 6–8 May 2014. NATPRO was established in 2005 by Professor Maitree Suttajit, Mahasarakham University with the aim of building research networking on natural products. NATPRO 2, 3 and 4 were subsequently organized by Naresuan University, Rangsit University and Chiang Mai University in 2008, 2011 and 2012, respectively. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Barnard, N., et al. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2014, 6, 897–910
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4317-4319; doi:10.3390/nu6104317
Received: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
PDF Full-text (61 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We have found some inadvertent errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. This is a second published correction, the first correction can be found [2].[...] Full article
Open AccessCommentary Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4354-4361; doi:10.3390/nu6104354
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 6 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between
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The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
Open AccessCase Report Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4404-4420; doi:10.3390/nu6104404
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac
[...] Read more.
Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
Open AccessLetter A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4472-4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The Institute of Medicine (IOM) issues dietary recommendations on the request of the U.S. and Canadian governments. [...] Full article

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