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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4476-4490; doi:10.3390/nu6104476

Severe Periodontitis Is Inversely Associated with Coffee Consumption in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
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Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
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Abstract

This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and underwent periodontal examination. Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of moderate/severe periodontitis was correlated with presence of hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.99, p < 0.05), smoking (former, OR = 5.63, p < 0.01; current, OR = 6.81, p = 0.076), number of teeth present (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001), plaque control record ≥20% (OR = 1.88, p < 0.05), and duration of maintenance phase (OR = 1.07, p < 0.01). On the other hand, presence of severe periodontitis was correlated with smoking (former, OR = 1.35, p = 0.501; current, OR = 3.98, p < 0.05), coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day, OR = 0.55, p < 0.05), number of teeth present (OR = 0.95, p < 0.05), and bleeding on probing ≥ 20% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001). There appears to be an inverse association between coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day) and prevalence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontitis; coffee; nutritional sciences; cross-sectional study periodontitis; coffee; nutritional sciences; cross-sectional study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Machida, T.; Tomofuji, T.; Ekuni, D.; Azuma, T.; Takeuchi, N.; Maruyama, T.; Mizutani, S.; Kataoka, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Morita, M. Severe Periodontitis Is Inversely Associated with Coffee Consumption in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4476-4490.

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