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Special Issue "Assessment of Nutrient Intakes"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Clare Collins (Website)

Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
Phone: +61 2 49215646
Fax: +61 2 4921 7053
Interests: nutrition; dietary intake; caloric restriction; dietary patterns; diet quality
Guest Editor
Dr. Sharon Kirkpatrick (Website)

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, BMH 1036, Waterloo, ON Canada N2L 3G1
Interests: dietary methodology; measurement error; relationships between diet and health; dietary interventions; food access among marginalized populations; policy and program interventions to reduce food insecurity; food policy; dietary guidance; and food environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Accurately measuring consumption of food, drinks and supplements is an important first step in estimating nutrient intakes. While it can be fraught with challenges, assessing dietary intake remains an important facet of surveillance, epidemiological, clinical and intervention research. This issue will include original research and scientific perspectives on the assessment of dietary intake, including potential sources of error and strategies for addressing these to improve the estimation of dietary intakes.

Prof. Clare Collins
Dr. Sharon Kirkpatrick
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • dietary intake
  • dietary assessment
  • dietary exposures
  • dietary outcomes
  • dietary patterns
  • dietary supplements
  • measurement error
  • biomarkers
  • validation
  • calibration
  • technological innovation

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Assessment of Nutrient Intakes: Introduction to the Special Issue
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 184; doi:10.3390/nu8040184
Received: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 166; doi:10.3390/nu8030166
Received: 5 December 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure [...] Read more.
Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n = 150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Validity of Two New Brief Instruments to Estimate Vegetable Intake in Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6688-6699; doi:10.3390/nu7085305
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cost effective population-based monitoring tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and interventions. The aim was to evaluate the relative validity of two new brief instruments (three item: VEG3 and five item: VEG5) for estimating usual total vegetable intake in comparison to a [...] Read more.
Cost effective population-based monitoring tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and interventions. The aim was to evaluate the relative validity of two new brief instruments (three item: VEG3 and five item: VEG5) for estimating usual total vegetable intake in comparison to a 7-day dietary record (7DDR). Sixty-four Australian adult volunteers aged 30 to 69 years (30 males, mean age ± SD 56.3 ± 9.2 years and 34 female mean age ± SD 55.3 ± 10.0 years). Pearson correlations between 7DDR and VEG3 and VEG5 were modest, at 0.50 and 0.56, respectively. VEG3 significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated mean vegetable intake compared to 7DDR measures (2.9 ± 1.3 vs. 3.6 ± 1.6 serves/day, respectively), whereas mean vegetable intake assessed by VEG5 did not differ from 7DDR measures (3.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.6 ± 1.6 serves/day). VEG5 was also able to correctly identify 95%, 88% and 75% of those subjects not consuming five, four and three serves/day of vegetables according to their 7DDR classification. VEG5, but not VEG3, can estimate usual total vegetable intake of population groups and had superior performance to VEG3 in identifying those not meeting different levels of vegetable intake. VEG5, a brief instrument, shows measurement characteristics useful for population-based monitoring and intervention targeting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6330-6345; doi:10.3390/nu7085287
Received: 11 May 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross [...] Read more.
For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6362-6374; doi:10.3390/nu7085282
Received: 16 May 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and [...] Read more.
A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6128-6138; doi:10.3390/nu7085274
Received: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern [...] Read more.
Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle The Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire for People with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5484-5496; doi:10.3390/nu7075231
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutrition therapy is essential for diabetes treatment, and assessment of dietary intake can be time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure diabetic patients’ adherence to Canadian diabetes nutrition recommendations. Specific information derived [...] Read more.
Nutrition therapy is essential for diabetes treatment, and assessment of dietary intake can be time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure diabetic patients’ adherence to Canadian diabetes nutrition recommendations. Specific information derived from three, repeated 24-h dietary recalls of 64 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.2 ± 9.7 years, was correlated with a total score and individual items of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire (PDAQ). Test-retest reliability was completed by 27 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 62.8 ± 8.4 years. The correlation coefficients for PDAQ items versus 24-h recalls ranged from 0.46 to 0.11. The intra-class correlation (0.78) was acceptable, indicating good reliability. The results suggest that PDAQ is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes nutrition recommendations. Because it is quick to administer and score, it may be useful as a screening tool in research and as a clinical tool to monitor dietary adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5375-5395; doi:10.3390/nu7075226
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. [...] Read more.
The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessCommunication Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4897-4910; doi:10.3390/nu7064897
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Folate and Nutrients Involved in the 1-Carbon Cycle in the Pretreatment of Patients for Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4318-4335; doi:10.3390/nu7064318
Received: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and [...] Read more.
To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4363-4382; doi:10.3390/nu7064363
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the [...] Read more.
Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4403-4415; doi:10.3390/nu7064403
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children [...] Read more.
Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63) captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63) returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%); willingness to use the mFR again (87%); and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%). Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%); Time 2 (49/63, 78%); and at both times (47/63, 75%). This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD) image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4016-4032; doi:10.3390/nu7064016
Received: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with [...] Read more.
Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007–2010
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 3949-3958; doi:10.3390/nu7063949
Received: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 25 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micronutrients play a pivotal role in achieving and maintaining optimum health across all life stages. Much of the U.S. population fails to meet Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for key nutrients. This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) [...] Read more.
Micronutrients play a pivotal role in achieving and maintaining optimum health across all life stages. Much of the U.S. population fails to meet Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for key nutrients. This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2–18, 19–99, and 2–99 years of age according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 data. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to assess usual intake of 21 micronutrients and the percentage of the population under EARs and above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). Without fortification of RTECs, the percentage of those aged 2–18 years that were below EARs increased by 155, 163, 113, and 35% for niacin, iron, thiamin, and vitamin A, respectively. For vitamins B6 and zinc, the respective numbers were 118% and 60%. Adults aged 19–99 and 2–99 had lower percentages but similar outcomes. RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy and do not widely affect prevalence above the UL. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification, and that its use can help Americans reach national nutrient intake goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3652-3665; doi:10.3390/nu7053652
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating [...] Read more.
Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3557-3568; doi:10.3390/nu7053557
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 [...] Read more.
The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Fruit and Vegetable Intake Assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire and Plasma Carotenoids: A Validation Study in Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3240-3251; doi:10.3390/nu7053240
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary validation studies of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake should ideally include measurement of plasma biomarkers of intake. The aim was to conduct a validation study of self-reported fruit and vegetable intakes in adults, using the Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency [...] Read more.
Dietary validation studies of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake should ideally include measurement of plasma biomarkers of intake. The aim was to conduct a validation study of self-reported fruit and vegetable intakes in adults, using the Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), against a range of plasma carotenoids. Dietary intakes were assessed using the semi-quantitative 120 item AES FFQ. Fasting plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene and cryptoxanthin) were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography in a sample of 38 adult volunteers (66% female). Significant positive correlations were found between FFQ and plasma carotenoids for α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin (52%, 47%, 26%, p < 0.001, 0.003, 0.041; respectively) and relationships between plasma carotenoids (except lycopene) and weight status metrics (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass) were negative and highly significant. The results of the current study demonstrate that carotenoid intakes as assessed by the AES FFQ are significantly related to plasma concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, the carotenoids commonly found in fruit and vegetables. Lower levels of all plasma carotenoids, except lycopene, were found in individuals with higher BMI. We conclude that the AES can be used to measure fruit and vegetable intakes with confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2345-2358; doi:10.3390/nu7042345
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
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Abstract
Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in [...] Read more.
Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
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Open AccessArticle Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1052-1067; doi:10.3390/nu7021052
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 19 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
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Abstract
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses [...] Read more.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were observed when the effect of dietary patterns on memory, processing speed and vocabulary were examined. Complex patterns of associations between dietary factors and cognition were evident, with the most consistent finding being the protective effects of high vegetable and plant-based food item consumption and negative effects of ‘Western’ patterns on cognition. Further long-term studies and investigation of the best methods for dietary measurement are needed to better understand diet-disease relationships in this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle The Comparative Validity and Reproducibility of a Diet Quality Index for Adults: The Australian Recommended Food Score
Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 785-798; doi:10.3390/nu7020785
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed [...] Read more.
Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed to reflect alignment with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and is modelled on the US Recommended Food Score. Dietary intakes of 96 adult participants (31 male, 65 female) age 30 to 75 years were assessed in two rounds, five months apart. Diet was assessed using a 120-question semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The ARFS diet quality index was derived using a subset of 70 items from the full FFQ. Reproducibility of the ARFS between round one and round two was confirmed by the overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90), which compared favourably to that for the FFQ at 0.85 (95% CI 0.80, 0.89). ARFS was correlated with FFQ nutrient intakes, particularly fiber, vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C (0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.67), and with mineral intakes, particularly calcium, magnesium and potassium (0.32, 95% CI 0.23–0.40). ARFS is a suitable brief tool to evaluate diet quality in adults and reliably estimates a range of nutrient intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Riboflavin Intakes and Status of 20–64-Year-Old Adults in South Korea
Nutrients 2015, 7(1), 253-264; doi:10.3390/nu7010253
Received: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 31 December 2014
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Abstract
A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive [...] Read more.
A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 412 (145 men and 267 women) healthy adults, aged 20–64 years, living in South Korea and urine samples were collected from 149 subjects of all subjects. The dietary and total (dietary plus supplemental) riboflavin intake was 1.33 ± 0.34 and 2.87 ± 6.29 mg/day, respectively. Approximately 28% of the subjects consumed total riboflavin less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Urinary riboflavin excretion was 205.1 ± 190.1 μg/g creatinine. Total riboflavin intake was significantly positively correlated to the urinary riboflavin excretion. (r = 0.17171, p = 0.0363). About 11% of the Korean adults had urinary riboflavin <27 μg/g creatinine indicating a riboflavin deficiency and 21% had low status of riboflavin (27 μg/g creatinine ≤ urinary riboflavin < 80 μg/g creatinine). Thus, one-third of Korean adults in this study had inadequate riboflavin status. In some adults in Korea, consumption of riboflavin-rich food sources should be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Biochemical Validation of the Older Australian’s Food Frequency Questionnaire Using Carotenoids and Vitamin E
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4906-4917; doi:10.3390/nu6114906
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
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Abstract
Background: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is important, as inaccurate and imprecise information may affect the association between dietary exposure and health outcomes. Objective: This study assessed the validity of the Older Australian’s FFQ against plasma carotenoids and Vitamin E. [...] Read more.
Background: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is important, as inaccurate and imprecise information may affect the association between dietary exposure and health outcomes. Objective: This study assessed the validity of the Older Australian’s FFQ against plasma carotenoids and Vitamin E. Methods: A random subsample (n = 150) of 2420 participants in the Hunter Community Study, aged 55–85 years, were included. Correlations between crude and energy-adjusted FFQ estimates of carotenoids, Vitamin E, and fruit and vegetables with corresponding biomarkers were determined. Percentages of participants correctly classified in the same quartile, and in the same ± 1 quartile, by the two methods were calculated. Results: Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for α-carotene (r = 0.26–0.28), β-carotene (r = 0.21–0.25), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.21–0.23). Intakes of fruits and vegetables also showed similar correlations with these plasma carotenoids. Lycopene was only significantly correlated with fruit and vegetable intakes (r = 0.19–0.23). Weak correlations were observed for lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.12–0.16). For Vitamin E, significant correlation was observed for energy-adjusted FFQ estimate and biomarker (r = 0.20). More than 68% of individuals were correctly classified within the same or adjacent quartile, except for lutein + zeaxanthin. Conclusion: With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, the Older Australian’s FFQ provides reasonable rankings for individuals according to their carotenoids, Vitamin E, fruit and vegetable intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessArticle Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4320-4337; doi:10.3390/nu6104320
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and [...] Read more.
Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Urinary Sugars—A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5816-5833; doi:10.3390/nu7075255
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and [...] Read more.
Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessReview Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4875-4896; doi:10.3390/nu7064875
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics [...] Read more.
Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessReview Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3524-3535; doi:10.3390/nu7053524
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among [...] Read more.
Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
Open AccessReview Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3587-3620; doi:10.3390/nu7053587
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological [...] Read more.
Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
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Other

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Open AccessAbstract Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6155-6166; doi:10.3390/nu7085277
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women [...] Read more.
Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98) completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103) completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)

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