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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4520-4530; doi:10.3390/nu6104520

A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State 87020-900, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmacy, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State 87020-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 16 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
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Abstract

We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutaminedipeptide; aminoacidemia; glutamine; alanine; hypoglycemia; liver glutaminedipeptide; aminoacidemia; glutamine; alanine; hypoglycemia; liver
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Minguetti-Câmara, V.C.; Marques, A.C.R.; Schiavon, F.P.M.; Vilela, V.R.; Bruschi, M.L.; Bazotte, R.B. A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4520-4530.

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