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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4218-4272; doi:10.3390/nu6104218

Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

Division Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
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Abstract

Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy; isoflavones; DNA methylation; histone modifications; chromatin; miRNAs; lncRNAs; phytoestrogens; hormone-related tumors; epigenetic; chemoprevention soy; isoflavones; DNA methylation; histone modifications; chromatin; miRNAs; lncRNAs; phytoestrogens; hormone-related tumors; epigenetic; chemoprevention
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pudenz, M.; Roth, K.; Gerhauser, C. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4218-4272.

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