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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4491-4519; doi:10.3390/nu6104491

The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

1
Division of Experimental Urology, Department of Urology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, A-6020 Austria
2
Department of Dietetics, University of Applied Sciences Tyrol, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 7 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [658 KB, uploaded 21 October 2014]   |  

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; adverse effects; dietary supplements; alternative therapies prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; adverse effects; dietary supplements; alternative therapies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dueregger, A.; Heidegger, I.; Ofer, P.; Perktold, B.; Ramoner, R.; Klocker, H.; Eder, I.E. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4491-4519.

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